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 الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء

استعرض الموضوع السابق استعرض الموضوع التالي اذهب الى الأسفل 
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انثى عدد المساهمات : 208
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مُساهمةموضوع: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   الأربعاء سبتمبر 30, 2009 6:52 pm

المسارعة إلى تصحيح الخطأ وعدم إهماله

وقد كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يبادر إلى ذلك لا سيما وأنه لا يجوز في حقّه تأخير البيان عن وقت الحاجة وأنه مكلّف بأن يبين للناس الحقّ ويدلهم على الخير ويحذرهم من الشر ومسارعته صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى تصحيح أخطاء الناس واضحة في مناسبات كثيرة كقصة المسيء صلاته وقصة المخزومية وابن اللتبية وقصة أسامة والثلاثة الذين أرادوا التشديد والتبتل وغيرها وستأتي هذه القصص في ثنايا هذا البحث إن شاء الله.

وعدم المبادرة إلى تصحيح الأخطاء قد يفوّت المصلحة ويضيّع الفائدة وربما تذهب الفرصة وتضيع المناسبة ويبرد الحدث ويضعف التأثير

Hastening to Deal with People’s Mistakes

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) used to hasten to deal with people’s mistakes, especially when it was not right for him to delay doing so at the moment when this was needed. His task was to explain the truth to people, teach them to do good, and warn them off from doing evil. So he hastened to correct people on many occasions, as is seen in the stories of the man who was not doing his salaah properly, the Makhzoomi woman, Ibn al-Latbiyyah, Usaamah, the three who wanted to go to extremes in worship, and others. These stories will be related in the course of this discussion, in sha Allah.

Not hastening to deal with mistakes goes against the interests of Islam and misses out on the opportunity to strike while the iron is hot, as it were.


معالجة الخطأ ببيان الحكم

عن جَرْهَدٍ رضي الله عنه أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَرَّ بِهِ وَهُوَ كَاشِفٌ عَنْ فَخِذِهِ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ غَطِّ فَخِذَكَ فَإِنَّهَا مِنَ الْعَوْرَةِ سنن الترمذي رقم 2796 وقال الترمذي هذا حديث حسن


Dealing with Mistakes by Explaining the Ruling (HUKM).

Jarhad (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) passed by him when his thigh was uncovered. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said,

“Cover your thigh, for it is part of the ‘awrah.” (Sunan al-Tirmidhi, no. 2796. Al-Tirmidhi said, this is a hasan hadeeth).


رد المخطئين إلى الشرع وتذكيرهم بالمبدأ الذي خالفوه

في غمرة الخطأ وملابسات الحادث يغيب المبدأ الشرعي عن الأذهان ويضيع في المعمعة فيكون في إعادة إعلان المبدأ والجهر بالقاعدة الشرعية ردّ لمن أخطأ وإيقاظ من الغفلة التي حصلت وإذا تأملنا الحادثة الخطيرة التي وقعت بين المهاجرين والأنصار بسبب نار الفتنة التي أوقدها المنافقون لوجدنا مثالا نبويا على ذلك فقد روى البخاري رحمه الله تعالى في صحيحه عن جَابِر رَضِي اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قال: غَزَوْنَا مَعَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَقَدْ ثَابَ مَعَهُ نَاسٌ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ حَتَّى كَثُرُوا وَكَانَ مِنَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ رَجُلٌ لَعَّابٌ فَكَسَعَ أَنْصَارِيًّا فَغَضِبَ الأَنْصَارِيُّ غَضَبًا شَدِيدًا حَتَّى تَدَاعَوْا وَقَالَ الأَنْصَارِيُّ يَا لَلأَنْصَارِ وَقَالَ الْمُهَاجِرِيُّ يَا لَلْمُهَاجِرِينَ فَخَرَجَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ مَا بَالُ دَعْوَى أَهْلِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ ثُمَّ قَالَ مَا شَأْنُهُمْ فَأُخْبِرَ بِكَسْعَةِ الْمُهَاجِرِيِّ الأَنْصَارِيَّ قَالَ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ دَعُوهَا فَإِنَّهَا خَبِيثَةٌ. الفتح 3518

وفي رواية مسلم: وَلْيَنْصُرِ الرَّجُلُ أَخَاهُ ظَالِمًا أَوْ مَظْلُومًا إِنْ كَانَ ظَالِمًا فَلْيَنْهَهُ فَإِنَّهُ لَهُ نَصْرٌ وَإِنْ كَانَ مَظْلُومًا فَلْيَنْصُرْهُ صحيح مسلم رقم 2584

Referring People back to Islam when they Make Mistakes, and Pointing out to them the Principle they Break

When someone is indulging in a mistake, the Islamic principle is far from their minds and is lost in the clamour of the moment. In such cases reiterating the Islamic principle and announcing it loudly can be an effective way of stopping the person in his tracks and making him wake up from the stupor that has overtaken him. When we look at what happened between the Muhaajiroon and Ansaar, because of the flames of fitnah stirred up by the munaafiqoon, we will see an example of how the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used this tactic. Al-Bukhaari (may Allaah have mercy on him) reported in his Saheeh that Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:

“We went out on a military campaign with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and some of the muhaajiroon went with him too, and they were very many. Among the muhaajiroon was a man who was very playful (a joker). He shoved an Ansaari (in jest), and the Ansaari got very angry with him and called others to support him, saying, ‘O Ansaar!’ The Muhaajir called out, ‘O Muhaajireen!’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came out and said, ‘What is this call of the people of Jaahiliyyah all about?’ Then he said, ‘What is the matter with him?’ He was told about how the Muhaajir had shoved the Ansaari in jest. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘Leave it, for it (tribalism) is evil.’ ” (al-Fath, 3518).

According to a report narrated by Muslim, he said:

“Let a man help his brother whether he is an wrongdoer or the victim of wrongdoing. If he is a wrongdoer, he should stop him, and if he is the victim of wrongdoing, he should come to his aid.” (Saheeh Muslim, no. 2584).
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   الأربعاء سبتمبر 30, 2009 7:20 pm

تصحيح التصور الذي حصل الخطأ نتيجة لاختلاله


ففي صحيح البخاري عن حُمَيْدِ بْنِ أَبِي حُمَيْدٍ الطَّوِيلِ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ أَنَسَ بْنَ مَالِكٍ رَضِي اللَّهُ عَنْهُ يَقُولُ جَاءَ ثَلاثَةُ رَهْطٍ إِلَى بُيُوتِ أَزْوَاجِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَسْأَلُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَةِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَلَمَّا أُخْبِرُوا كَأَنَّهُمْ تَقَالُّوهَا (أي رأى كل منهم أنها قليلة) فَقَالُوا وَأَيْنَ نَحْنُ مِنَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَدْ غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ (أي أنهم ظنوا بأن من لم يعلم مغفرة ذنوبه يحتاج إلى المبالغة في العبادة أكثر من النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم رجاء أن تحصل له المغفرة) قَالَ أَحَدُهُمْ أَمَّا أَنَا فَإِنِّي أُصَلِّي اللَّيْلَ أَبَدًا وَقَالَ آخَرُ أَنَا أَصُومُ الدَّهْرَ وَلا أُفْطِرُ وَقَالَ آخَرُ أَنَا أَعْتَزِلُ النِّسَاءَ فَلا أَتَزَوَّجُ أَبَدًا فَجَاءَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِلَيْهِمْ فَقَالَ أَنْتُمُ الَّذِينَ قُلْتُمْ كَذَا وَكَذَا أَمَا وَاللَّهِ إِنِّي لأَخْشَاكُمْ لِلَّهِ وَأَتْقَاكُمْ لَهُ لَكِنِّي أَصُومُ وَأُفْطِرُ وَأُصَلِّي وَأَرْقُدُ وَأَتَزَوَّجُ

ورواه مسلم: عَنْ أَنَسٍ أَنَّ نَفَرًا مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ سَأَلُوا أَزْوَاجَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَنْ عَمَلِهِ فِي السِّرِّ فَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ لا أَتَزَوَّجُ النِّسَاءَ وَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ لا آكُلُ اللَّحْمَ وَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ لا أَنَامُ عَلَى فِرَاشٍ فَحَمِدَ اللَّهَ وَأَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ فَقَالَ مَا بَالُ أَقْوَامٍ قَالُوا كَذَا وَكَذَا لَكِنِّي أُصَلِّي وَأَنَامُ وَأَصُومُ وَأُفْطِرُ وَأَتَزَوَّجُ النِّسَاءَ فَمَنْ رَغِبَ عَنْ سُنَّتِي فَلَيْسَ مِنِّي صحيح مسلم رقم 1041

ونلاحظ هنا ما يلي:

ــ أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أتاهم فوعظهم في أنفسهم فيما بينه وبينهم ولما أراد أن يعلّم الناس عموما أبهمهم ولم يفضحهم وإنما قال ما بال أقوام.. وهذا رفقا بهم وسترا عليهم مع تحصيل المصلحة في الإخبار العام.

ــ في الحديث تتبّع أحوال الأكابر للتأسي بأفعالهم والسير على منوالهم وأنّ التنقيب عن ذلك من كمال العقل والسعي في تربية النفس.

ــ وفيه أن الأمور المفيدة والمشروعة إذا تعذّرت معرفتها من جهة الرجال جاز استكشافها من جهة النساء

ــ وأنه لا بأس بحديث المرء عن عمله إذا أَمِن الرياء وكان في الإخبار منفعة للآخرين.

ــ وفيه أنّ الأخذ بالتشديد في العبادة يؤدي إلى إملال النفس القاطع لها عن أصل العبادة وخير الأمور أوساطها. أنظر الفتح 9/104

ــ أن الأخطاء عموما تنشأ من خلل في التصورات فإذا صلح التصور قلّت الأخطاء كثيرا وواضح من الحديث أن السبب الذي دفع أولئك الصحابة إلى تلك الصور من التبتّل والرهبانية والتشديد هو ظنّهم أن لا بد من الزيادة على عبادة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم رجاء النجاة حيث أنه أُخبر من ربه بالمغفرة بخلافهم فصحح لهم النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم تصورهم المجانب للصواب وأخبرهم بأنه مع كونه مغفورا له فإنه أخشى الناس وأتقاهم لله وأمرهم بأن يلزموا سنته وطريقته في العبادة.

وقريب من هذا ما حصل لأحد الصحابة وهو كهمس الهلالي رضي الله عنه الذي روى قصته فقال: " أسلمت فأتيت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فأخبرته بإسلامي فمكثت حولا وقد ضمرت ونحل جسمي ثم أتيته فخفض فيّ البصر ثمّ رفعه قلت: أما تعرفني ؟ قال: ومن أنت ؟ قلت: أنا كَهْمِس الهلالي، قال: فما بلغ بك ما أرى ؟ قلت: ما أفطرت بعدك نهارا ولا نمت ليلا، فقال: ومن أمرك أن تعذّب نفسك ؟!. صم شهر الصبر ومن كل شهر يوما. قلت زدني، قال: صم شهر الصبر ومن كل شهر يومين، قلت: زدني أجد قوة، قال: صم شهر الصبر ومن كلّ شهر ثلاثة أيام ". مسند الطيالسي رواه الطبراني في الكبير 19/194 رقم 435 وهو في السلسلة الصحيحة برقم 2623

ومن الخلل في التصورات ما يكون متعلقا بموازين تقويم الأشخاص والنظرة إليهم وقد كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلّم حريصا على تصحيح ذلك وبيانه ففي صحيح البخاري عن سَهْلِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ السَّاعِدِيِّ أَنَّهُ قَالَ مَرَّ رَجُلٌ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ لرَجُلٍ عِنْدَهُ جَالِسٍ مَا رَأْيُكَ فِي هَذَا فَقَالَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَشْرَافِ النَّاسِ هَذَا وَاللَّهِ حَرِيٌّ إِنْ خَطَبَ أَنْ يُنْكَحَ وَإِنْ شَفَعَ أَنْ يُشَفَّعَ قَالَ فَسَكَتَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ثُمَّ مَرَّ رَجُلٌ آخَرُ فَقَالَ لَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَا رَأْيُكَ فِي هَذَا فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ هَذَا رَجُلٌ مِنْ فُقَرَاءِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ هَذَا حَرِيٌّ إِنْ خَطَبَ أَنْ لا يُنْكَحَ وَإِنْ شَفَعَ أَنْ لا يُشَفَّعَ وَإِنْ قَالَ أَنْ لا يُسْمَعَ لِقَوْلِهِ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ هَذَا خَيْرٌ مِنْ مِلْءِ الأَرْضِ مِثْلَ هَذَا الفتح 6447

وفي رواية ابن ماجة: مَرَّ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَا تَقُولُونَ فِي هَذَا الرَّجُلِ قَالُوا رَأْيَكَ فِي هَذَا نَقُولُ هَذَا مِنْ أَشْرَفِ النَّاسِ هَذَا حَرِيٌّ إِنْ خَطَبَ أَنْ يُخَطَّبَ وَإِنْ شَفَعَ أَنْ يُشَفَّعَ وَإِنْ قَالَ أَنْ يُسْمَعَ لِقَوْلِهِ فَسَكَتَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَمَرَّ رَجُلٌ آخَرُ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَا تَقُولُونَ فِي هَذَا قَالُوا نَقُولُ وَاللَّهِ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ هَذَا مِنْ فُقَرَاءِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ هَذَا حَرِيٌّ إِنْ خَطَبَ لَمْ يُنْكَحْ وَإِنْ شَفَعَ لا يُشَفَّعْ وَإِنْ قَالَ لا يُسْمَعْ لِقَوْلِهِ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَهَذَا خَيْرٌ مِنْ مِلْءِ الأَرْضِ مِثْلَ هَذَا سنن ابن ماجة ط. عبد الباقي رقم 4120


Correcting Misconceptions Happend Because of Something Unclear in People’s Minds

In Saheeh al-Bukhaari, Humayd ibn Abi Humayd al-Taweel reports that he heard Anas ibn Maalik (may Allaah be pleased with him) saying:

“Three people came to the houses of the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), asking about how the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) worshipped. When they were told about it, they thought that it was little. They said, “Who are we, compared to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)? All his sins, past and future, have been forgiven.” (They thought that the one who does not know that his sins have been forgiven needed to go to extremes in worship and do far more than the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), in the hope that their sins might be forgiven). One of them said, “As for me, I will pray every night from now on.” Another said, “As for me, I will fast for the rest of my life and will never break my fast.” The third said, “As for me, I will have nothing to do with women and I will never marry.” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came to them and said, “Are you the people who said such-and-such? By Allaah, I am the one who fears Allaah more than anyone, but I fast and I break my fast, I pray and I rest, and I get married.”

Muslim reported from Anas that a group of the Companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) asked the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) about what he did in secret. One of them (those Sahaabah) said, “I will never marry women.” Another said, “I will never eat meat.” Another said, “I will never sleep on a bed.” [The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)] praised and thanked Allaah, then he said,

“What is the matter with some people who say such-and-such? But as for me, I pray and I sleep, I fast and I break my fast, and I marry women. Whoever turns away from my Sunnah has nothing to do with me.” (Saheeh Muslim, no. 1041).

Here we may note the following points:

• The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came to them and addressed them directly; when he wanted to teach all the people, he did not refer to them by name or expose them, he merely said, “What is the matter with some people…?” In this way he was gentle with them and covered up for them whilst at the same time acting in the common interest by teaching everybody.

• The hadeeth describes finding out about the action of good people and seeking to emulate them. Investigating such things is the sign of a sound mind and efforts to improve oneself.

• This report indicates that when it comes to useful matters of religion, if it is not possible to learn them from men, it is permissible to learn them from women.

• There is nothing wrong with a person talking about his deeds so long as there is no element of showing off and it is for the benefit of others.

• We also learn that going to extremes in worship may cause a person to get bored, which in turn could lead him to stop worshipping altogether; the best of things are those that are moderate. (see al-Fath, 9/104).

• Mistakes generally come about as a result of misconceptions; if the ideas are put right, mistakes will decrease. It is clear from the hadeeth that the reason why those Sahaabah adopted those concepts of extreme worship and monasticism was that they thought they had to go beyond the Prophet’s actions in worship in order to attain salvation, because he had been told that all his sins were forgiven, but they did not have this advantage. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) set them straight, and told them that even though he was forgiven, he was the most fearing of Allaah among mankind, and he commanded them to follow his Sunnah in worship.

A similar thing happened to another Sahaabi, whose name was Kahmas al-Hilaali (may Allaah be pleased with him), who narrated his story:

“I became Muslim and came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and told him that I had become Muslim. I stayed away for a year, during which I became very skinny, and when I came back, he looked me up and down. I said, ‘Do you not know me?’ he said, ‘Who are you?’ I said, ‘I am Kahmas al-Hilaali.’ He said, ‘What happened to you?’ I said, ‘After I saw you, I never spent a day without fasting, and I never slept at night.’ He said, ‘Who told you to torture yourself? Fast the month of patience [i.e., Ramadaan], and one day of every month besides that.’ I said, ‘Let me do more.’ He said, ‘Fast the month of patience and two days of every month besides that.’ I said, ‘Let me do more, I am able for it.’ He said, ‘Fast the month of patience and three days of every month besides that.’” (Musnad al-Tayaalisi. Reported by al-Tabaraani in al-Kabeer, 19/194, no. 435. Also in al-Silsilat al-Saheehah, no. 2623).

Some misconceptions may be based on how one judges people and regards them. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was very keen to correct this and put people straight in this regard. In Saheeh al-Bukhaari, there is a report from Sahl ibn Sa’d al-Saa’idi who said:

“A man passed by the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), so he asked a man sitting by him, ‘What do you think of this man?’ He said, ‘He is one of the noblest of the people. By Allaah, if he proposes marriage he deserves to be accepted and if he intercedes he deserves to have his intercession accepted.’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said nothing. Then another man passed by and the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) asked the man with him, ‘What do you think of him?’ The man said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, he is one of the poor Muslims. If he proposes marriage he does not deserve to be accepted, if he intercedes he does not deserve to have his intercession accepted, and if he speaks he does not deserve to be heard. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘This man is better than an earth full of men like the other man.’ ” (al-Fath, 6447).

According to a report narrated by Ibn Maajah: a man passed by the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said (to his Companions),

“What do you think of this man?” They said, “We think that he is one of the noblest of people. If he proposes marriage he deserves to be accepted, if he intercedes he deserves to have his intercession accepted, and if he speaks he deserves to be heard.” The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said nothing. Another man passed by and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) asked, “What do you think of this man?” They said, “By Allaah, O Messenger of Allaah, he is one of the poor Muslims. If he proposes marriage he does not deserve to be accepted, if he intercedes, he does not deserve to have his intercession accepted, and if he speaks he does not deserve to be heard.” The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “This man is better than an earth full of men like the other one.” (Sunan Ibn Maajah, ‘Abd al-Baaqi edn., no. 4120)
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   الأربعاء سبتمبر 30, 2009 7:28 pm

يتبــــــــع
والموضوع بيتراجع اول باول يا جماعه
وان شاء الله فى الاخر هحط المصدر عشان كله مع بعض
وهحط التاكيد الاخير ع المراجعه
عشان بس محدش تانى يراجعه ونضيع وقت ومجهود ممكن يفيدونا فى حاجة تانيه

وسما هتنزل معايا فى الموضوع ده هى جزء وانا جزء
يعنى المراجعه تمام ان شاء الله lol!

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   الأربعاء سبتمبر 30, 2009 7:54 pm

معالجة الخطأ بالموعظة وتكرار التخويف

عن جنْدَبِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْبَجَلِيِّ أن رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بَعَثَ بَعْثًا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ إِلَى قَوْمٍ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَإِنَّهُمُ الْتَقَوْا فَكَانَ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ إِذَا شَاءَ أَنْ يَقْصِدَ إِلَى رَجُلٍ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ قَصَدَ لَهُ فَقَتَلَهُ وَإِنَّ رَجُلا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ قَصَدَ غَفْلَتَهُ قَالَ وَكُنَّا نُحَدَّثُ أَنَّهُ أُسَامَةُ بْنُ زَيْدٍ فَلَمَّا رَفَعَ عَلَيْهِ السَّيْفَ قَالَ لا إِلَهَ إِلا اللَّهُ فَقَتَلَهُ فَجَاءَ الْبَشِيرُ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَسَأَلَهُ فَأَخْبَرَهُ حَتَّى أَخْبَرَهُ خَبَرَ الرَّجُلِ كَيْفَ صَنَعَ فَدَعَاهُ فَسَأَلَهُ فَقَالَ لِمَ قَتَلْتَهُ قَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَوْجَعَ فِي الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَقَتَلَ فُلانًا وَفُلانًا وَسَمَّى لَهُ نَفَرًا وَإِنِّي حَمَلْتُ عَلَيْهِ فَلَمَّا رَأَى السَّيْفَ قَالَ لا إِلَهَ إِلا اللَّهُ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَقَتَلْتَهُ قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ فَكَيْفَ تَصْنَعُ بِلا إِلَهَ إِلا اللَّهُ إِذَا جَاءَتْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ قَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ اسْتَغْفِرْ لِي قَالَ وَكَيْفَ تَصْنَعُ بِلا إِلَهَ إِلا اللَّهُ إِذَا جَاءَتْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ قَالَ فَجَعَلَ لا يَزِيدُهُ عَلَى أَنْ يَقُولَ كَيْفَ تَصْنَعُ بِلا إِلَهَ إِلا اللَّهُ إِذَا جَاءَتْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ رواه مسلم ط. عبد الباقي رقم 97

وفي رواية أُسَامَةَ بْنِ زَيْدٍ رضي الله عنه قَالَ بَعَثَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي سَرِيَّةٍ فَصَبَّحْنَا الْحُرَقَاتِ مِنْ جُهَيْنَةَ فَأَدْرَكْتُ رَجُلا فَقَالَ لا إِلَهَ إِلا اللَّهُ فَطَعَنْتُهُ فَوَقَعَ فِي نَفْسِي مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَذَكَرْتُهُ لِلنَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَقَالَ لا إِلَهَ إِلا اللَّهُ وَقَتَلْتَهُ قَالَ قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّمَا قَالَهَا خَوْفًا مِنَ السِّلاحِ قَالَ أَفَلا شَقَقْتَ عَنْ قَلْبِهِ حَتَّى تَعْلَمَ أَقَالَهَا أَمْ لا فَمَا زَالَ يُكَرِّرُهَا عَلَيَّ حَتَّى تَمَنَّيْتُ أَنِّي أَسْلَمْتُ يَوْمَئِذٍ رواه مسلم رقم 69

ومما يدخل في مواجهة الخطأ بالموعظة: التذكير بقدرة الله وهذا مثال:

روى مسلم رحمه الله تعالى عن أَبُي مَسْعُودٍ الْبَدْرِيِّ قال: كُنْتُ أَضْرِبُ غُلامًا لِي بِالسَّوْطِ فَسَمِعْتُ صَوْتًا مِنْ خَلْفِي اعْلَمْ أَبَا مَسْعُودٍ فَلَمْ أَفْهَمِ الصَّوْتَ مِنَ الْغَضَبِ قَالَ فَلَمَّا دَنَا مِنِّي إِذَا هُوَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَإِذَا هُوَ يَقُولُ اعْلَمْ أَبَا مَسْعُودٍ اعْلَمْ أَبَا مَسْعُودٍ قَالَ فَأَلْقَيْتُ السَّوْطَ مِنْ يَدِي وفي رواية فَسَقَطَ مِنْ يَدِي السَّوْطُ مِنْ هَيْبَتِهِ فَقَالَ اعْلَمْ أَبَا مَسْعُودٍ أَنَّ اللَّهَ أَقْدَرُ عَلَيْكَ مِنْكَ عَلَى هَذَا الْغُلامِ قَالَ فَقُلْتُ لا أَضْرِبُ مَمْلُوكًا بَعْدَهُ أَبَدًا وفي رواية فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ هُوَ حُرٌّ لِوَجْهِ اللَّهِ فَقَالَ أَمَا لَوْ لَمْ تَفْعَلْ لَلَفَحَتْكَ النَّارُ أَوْ لَمَسَّتْكَ النَّارُ وفي رواية لمسلم أيضا فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَاللَّهِ لَلَّهُ أَقْدَرُ عَلَيْكَ مِنْكَ عَلَيْهِ قَالَ فَأَعْتَقَهُ صحيح مسلم رقم 1659

وعَنْ أَبِي مَسْعُودٍ الأَنْصَارِيِّ قَالَ كُنْتُ أَضْرِبُ مَمْلُوكًا لِي فَسَمِعْتُ قَائِلا مِنْ خَلْفِي يَقُولُ اعْلَمْ أَبَا مَسْعُودٍ اعْلَمْ أَبَا مَسْعُودٍ فَالْتَفَتُّ فَإِذَا أَنَا بِرَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ لَلَّهُ أَقْدَرُ عَلَيْكَ مِنْكَ عَلَيْهِ قَالَ أَبُو مَسْعُودٍ فَمَا ضَرَبْتُ مَمْلُوكًا لِي بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ رواه الترمذي رقم 1948 قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ

Dealing with Mistakes by Repeatedly Reminding People to Fear Allaah

Jundub ibn ‘Abd-Allaah al-Bajali reported that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) sent a group of Muslims to fight some mushrikeen, and they met in battle. One of the mushrikeen was ambushing individual Muslims and killing them. One of the Muslims wanted to catch him out and kill him. [Jundub said:] “We used to think that that man was Usaamah ibn Zayd. When he raised his sword, the mushrik said ‘La ilaaha ill-Allaah,’ but he [Usaamah] killed him. A messenger came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and reported to him about what had happened in the battle. When he told him about what had happened to the mushrik who said Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) sent for Usaamah and asked him,

‘Why did you kill him?’ He said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, he had caused much grief to the Muslims, he killed So-and-so and So-and-so,’ – and he named a number of people – ‘I attacked him and when he saw the sword he said Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah.’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘And then you killed him?’ Usaamah said, ‘Yes.’ He said, ‘What will you do when Laa illaha ill-Allaah comes on the Day of Resurrection?’ He said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, pray for forgiveness for me.’” The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) simply said, “What will you do when Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah comes on the Day of Resurrection?” He did not say any more than that. (Reported by Muslim, ‘Abd al-Baaqi edn., no. 97).

According to a report narrated by Usaamah ibn Zayd, he said:

“The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) sent us out on a military campaign and we reached al-Haraqaat near Juhaynah in the morning. [During the battle] I caught a man and he said, ‘Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah,’ but I stabbed him. Then I felt bad about that, and I mentioned it to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘He said Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah and you killed him?’ I said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, he only said it because he was afraid of my weapon.’ He said, ‘How can you know what is in his heart? How can you be sure whether he was sincere or not?’ He kept repeating this until I wished that I had not become Muslim until that day [because embracing Islam wipes out all sins that came before - Translator].” (Reported by Muslim, no. 69)

One issue that may be included under the heading of reminders is reminding people about the power of Allaah. An example of this follows:

Muslim (may Allaah have mercy on him) reported that Abu Mas‘ood al-Badri said:

“I was beating a slave of mine with a whip, and I heard a voice behind me saying, ‘Listen Abu Mas‘ood!’ but I did not pay any attention to the voice because I was so angry. When the voice got nearer to me, I realized that it was the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and he was saying, ‘Listen Abu Mas‘ood, listen Abu Mas‘ood!’ I dropped the whip from my hand (according to another report: the whip fell from my hand out of respect for him). He said, ‘Listen Abu Mas‘ood, Allaah has more power over you than you have over this slave.’ I said, ‘I will never hit a slave again.’” According to another report he said: “I said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, he is free for the sake of Allaah.’ He said, ‘If you did not do this, the Fire of Hell would blow in your face, or the Fire would touch you.’ ”

According to another report also narrated by Muslim, “the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

‘Certainly Allaah has more power over you than you have over him.’ So he freed him.” (Saheeh Muslim, no. 1659)

Abu Mas‘ood al-Ansaari said:

“I was beating a slave of mine when I heard someone saying from behind me, ‘Listen, Abu Mas‘ood, listen, Abu Mas‘ood.’ I turned around and saw that it was the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). He said, ‘Allaah has more power over you than you have over him.’… I never beat any slave of mine after that.” (Reported by al-Tirmidhi, no. 1948. Abu ‘Eesa said, this is a hasan saheeh hadeeth).
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   الأربعاء سبتمبر 30, 2009 7:58 pm

إظهار الرحمة بالمخطئ

وهكذا يكون في حال من يستحق ممن عظم ندمه واشتد أسفه وظهرت توبته مثلما يقع أحياناً من بعض المستفتيين كما في مثل هذه القصة:

عن ابن عباس أن رجلاً أتى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قد ظاهر من امرأته فوقع عليها فقال : يا رسول الله إنى قد ظاهرت من زوجتى فوقعت عليها قبل أن أُكفر ، فقال : وما حملك على ذلك يرحمك الله ، قال : رأيت خلخالها في ضوء القمر ، قال : فلا تقربها حتى تفعل ما أمرك الله به .

قال أبو سعيد هذا حديث حسن غريب صحيح سنن الترمذي رقم 1199



وعن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه قال : بينما نحن جلوس عند النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إذ جاءه رجل فقال : يا رسول الله هلكت ، قال : مالك ، قال : وقعت على امرأتى وأنا صائم ، فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : هل تجد رقبة تعتقها ؟ قال : لا ، قال : فهل تستطيع أن تصوم شهرين متتابعين ؟ قال : لا ، فقال هل تجد إطعام ستين مسكيناً ؟ قال : لا ، فمكث النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم . قال : فبينما نحن على ذلك أتى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بعرق فيها تمر ( والعرق المكتل )قال : أين السائل ؟ فقال : أنا ، قال : خذها فتصدق به ، فقال الرجل أعلى أفقر مني يا رسول الله فو الله ما بين لابتيها ( يريد الحرتين ) أهل بيت أفقر من أهل بيتى ، فضحك النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم حتى بدت أنيابه ثم قال : أطعمه أهلك .

رواه البخاري فتح 1936





إن هذا المستفتى المخطئ لم يكن هازلا ولا مستخفا بالأمر بل إن تأنيبه نفسه وشعوره بخطئه واضح من قوله : هلكت، ولذلك استحق الرحمة . ورواية أحمد رحمه الله فيها مزيد من التوضيح لحال الرجل عند مجيئه مستفتياً .



عن أبي هريرة أن أعرابياً جاء يلطم وجهه وينتف شعره ويقول : ما أرانى إلا قد هلكت فقال له رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : وما أهلكك ؟ قال : أصبت أهلى في رمضان ، قال : أتستطيع أن تعتق رقبة ؟ قال : لا ، قال : أتستطيع أن تصوم شهرين متتابعين ؟ قال : لا ، قال : أتستطيع أن تطعم ستين مسكيناً ؟ قال : لا وذكر الحاجة ، فأتى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بزنبيل (وهو المكتل ) فيه خمسة عشر صاعاً أحسبه تمراً قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم : أين الرجل ؟ قال : أطعم هذا ، قال : يا رسول الله ما بين لابتيها أحوج منا أهل بيت ، قال فضحك رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم حتى بدت أنيابه ، قال : أطعم أهلك

المسند 2/516 الفتح الرباني 10/89 .

Showing Compassion to the one Commiting a Mistake.


This applies in the case of those who deserve compassion, who feel remorse and show that they have repented, as is sometimes the case when people come to ask questions and find out, as in the following story. Ibn ‘Abbaas reported that a man who had divorced his wife by zihaar and then had intercourse with her came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said,

“O Messenger of Allaah, I divorced my wife by zihaar then I had intercourse with her before I offered kafaarah (expiation).” He said, “What made you do that, may Allaah have mercy on you?” He said, “I saw her anklets in the moonlight.” He said, “Then do not go near her until you have done that which Allaah commanded you to do.” (Abu ‘Eesa said, this is a hasan ghareeb saheeh hadeeth. Saheeh Sunan al-Tirmidhi, no. 1199)

Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:

“Whilst we were sitting with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), a man came to him and said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, I am doomed!’ He said, ‘What is the matter with you?’ He said, ‘I had intercourse with my wife whilst I was fasting.’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘Are you able to set a slave free?’ He said, ‘No.’ He said, ‘Can you fast for two consecutive months?’ He said, ‘No.’ He said, ‘Do you have the wherewithal to feed sixty poor persons?’ He said, ‘No.’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said nothing more about the matter for a while, and whilst we were sitting there like that, a large basket full of dates was brought to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). He said, ‘Where is the one who was asking?’ The man said, ‘Here I am.’ He said, ‘Take this and give it in charity.’ The man said, ‘Who is poorer than me, O Messenger of Allaah? By Allaah, there is no family in Madeenah poorer than mine.’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) smiled until his eyeteeth were visible, then he said, ‘Feed your family with it.’” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, Fath, 1936).

This person who had made a mistake and came to ask about it was not joking or taking the matter lightly. He felt remorseful and guilty, as is clear from his saying “I am doomed.” For this reason, he deserved pity and compassion. The report narrated by Ahmad (may Allaah have mercy on him) makes the man’s state even clearer:

Abu Hurayrah reported that a Bedouin came, hitting his cheeks and tearing out his hair, and saying, “I am sure that I am doomed!” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to him, “What makes you doomed?” He said, “I had intercourse with my wife during Ramadaan.” He said, “Can you free a slave?’ He said, “No.” He said, “Can you fast for two consecutive months?” He said, “No.” He said, “Can you feed sixty poor persons?” He said, “No,” and mentioned how poor he was. A large basket containing fifteen saa’ of dates was brought to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “Where is that man? … Feed the poor with this.” He said, “O Messenger of Allaah, there is no one in Madeenah who is poorer than my family.” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) smiled until his eyeteeth were visible and said, “Feed your family.” (Al-Musnad, 2/516. Al-Fath al-Rabaani, 10/89)
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   الأربعاء سبتمبر 30, 2009 8:02 pm

عدم التسرع في التخطئة

وقد حدثت لعمر رضي الله عنه قصة رواها بنفسه فقال: سَمِعْتُ هِشَامَ بْنَ حَكِيمِ بْنِ حِزَامٍ يَقْرَأُ سُورَةَ الْفُرْقَانِ فِي حَيَاةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَاسْتَمَعْتُ لِقِرَاءَتِهِ فَإِذَا هُوَ يَقْرَأُ عَلَى حُرُوفٍ كَثِيرَةٍ لَمْ يُقْرِئْنِيهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَكِدْتُ أُسَاوِرُهُ فِي الصَّلاةِ فَتَصَبَّرْتُ حَتَّى سَلَّمَ فَلَبَّبْتُهُ بِرِدَائِهِ فَقُلْتُ مَنْ أَقْرَأَكَ هَذِهِ السُّورَةَ الَّتِي سَمِعْتُكَ تَقْرَأُ قَالَ أَقْرَأَنِيهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقُلْتُ كَذَبْتَ فَإِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَدْ أَقْرَأَنِيهَا عَلَى غَيْرِ مَا قَرَأْتَ فَانْطَلَقْتُ بِهِ أَقُودُهُ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقُلْتُ إِنِّي سَمِعْتُ هَذَا يَقْرَأُ بِسُورَةِ الْفُرْقَانِ عَلَى حُرُوفٍ لَمْ تُقْرِئْنِيهَا فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَرْسِلْهُ اقْرَأْ يَا هِشَامُ فَقَرَأَ عَلَيْهِ الْقِرَاءةَ الَّتِي سَمِعْتُهُ يَقْرَأُ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَذَلِكَ أُنْزِلَتْ ثُمَّ قَالَ اقْرَأْ يَا عُمَرُ فَقَرَأْتُ الْقِرَاءةَ الَّتِي أَقْرَأَنِي فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَذَلِكَ أُنْزِلَتْ إِنَّ هَذَا الْقُرْآنَ أُنْزِلَ عَلَى سَبْعَةِ أَحْرُفٍ فَاقْرَءُوا مَا تَيَسَّرَ مِنْهُ رواه البخاري الفتح 4992

ومن الفوائد التربوية في هذه القصة ما يلي:

ـ أَمْر كل واحد منهما أن يقرأ أمام الآخر مع تصويبه أبلغ في تقرير صوابهما وعدم خطأ أيّ منهما.

ـ أمْر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عمر بإطلاق هشام بقوله: (أرسله يا عمر) كما في رواية الترمذي للقصة صحيح الترمذي 3/16 فيه تهيئة الخصمين للاستماع وهما في حال الهدوء وفيه إشارة إلى استعجال عمر رضي الله عنه.

ـ على طالب العلم أن لا يستعجل بتخطئة من حكى قولا يخالف ما يعرفه إلا بعد التثبت فربما يكون ذلك القول قولا معتبرا من أقوال أهل العلم.

ومما يتعلق بهذا الموضوع أيضا: عدم التسرع في العقوبة وفي القصة التالية شاهد:

روى النسائي رحمه الله عَنْ عَبَّادِ بْنِ شُرَحْبِيلَ رضي الله عنه قَالَ قَدِمْتُ مَعَ عُمُومَتِي الْمَدِينَةَ فَدَخَلْتُ حَائِطًا مِنْ حِيطَانِهَا فَفَرَكْتُ مِنْ سُنْبُلِهِ فَجَاءَ صَاحِبُ الْحَائِطِ فَأَخَذَ كِسَائِي وَضَرَبَنِي فَأَتَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَسْتَعْدِي عَلَيْهِ فَأَرْسَلَ إِلَى الرَّجُلِ فَجَاءُوا بِهِ فَقَالَ مَا حَمَلَكَ عَلَى هَذَا فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّهُ دَخَلَ حَائِطِي فَأَخَذَ مِنْ سُنْبُلِهِ فَفَرَكَهُ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَا عَلَّمْتَهُ إِذْ كَانَ جَاهِلا وَلا أَطْعَمْتَهُ إِذْ كَانَ جَائِعًا ارْدُدْ عَلَيْهِ كِسَاءهُ وَأَمَرَ لِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِوَسْقٍ أَوْ نِصْفِ وَسْقٍ النسائي: المجتبى: كتاب آداب القضاة باب الاستعداء وهو في صحيح سنن النسائي رقم 4999

يُستفاد من هذه القصّة أنّ معرفة ظروف المخطئ أو المتعدي يوجّه إلى الطريقة السليمة في التعامل معه.
وكذلك يُلاحظ أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لم يُعاقب صاحب البستان لأنه صاحب حقّ وإنما خطّأه في أسلوبه ونبهه بأنّ تصرّفه مع من يجهل لم يكن بالتصرّف السليم في مثل ذلك الموقف ثمّ أرشده إلى التصرّف الصحيح وأمره بردّ ما أخذه من ثياب الجائع.


Not Hastening to Tell Someone he is Wrong


Something happened to ‘Umar which he himself told about: “I heard Hishaam ibn Hakeem ibn Hizaam reciting Soorat al-Furqaan during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). I listened to his recitation, and he was reciting it differently to the way that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to recite it. I nearly interrupted his prayer, but I waited until he had said the salaam, then I grabbed him by his cloak and said, ‘Who taught you to recite this soorah I heard you reciting?’ He said, ‘The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) taught me to recite it.’ I said, ‘You are lying! The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) taught me to recite it differently.’ I took him to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said, ‘I heard him reciting Soorat al-Furqaan differently than the way you taught me to recite it.’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said,

‘Let him go. Recite, O Hishaam.’ He recited it as I had heard him recite it. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘This is how it was revealed.’ Then he said, ‘Recite, O ‘Umar.’ So I recited it as he had taught me. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘This is how it was revealed. This Qur’an was revealed with seven ways of recitation, so recite it in the way that is easiest for you.’ ” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, al-Fath, 4992).

Among the educational methods we learn from this story are the following:

• Telling each one to recite in front of the other and approving their recitation was more effective in confirming that both were correct and neither was wrong.

• When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told ‘Umar to let go of Hishaam, this was preparing both parties to listen in a calm manner. This was an indication that ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) had been too hasty.

• A person who is seeking knowledge should not be too hasty to condemn any opinion that differs from that with which he is familiar; he should first be sure of what he is saying, because that opinion may turn out to be a valid scholarly opinion.

Another relevant point is that one should not hasten to punish someone who makes a mistake, as we see in the following story:

An-Nisaa`i (may Allaah have mercy on him) reported from ‘Abbaad ibn Sharhabeel (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: “I came with my (paternal) uncles to Madeenah, and we entered one of the gardens of the city. I rubbed some of the wheat, and the owner of the garden came and took my cloak and hit me. I came to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) asking for his help. He sent for that man and they brought him to him. He said to him, ‘What made you do that?’ He said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, he went into my garden and took some of my wheat and rubbed it.’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘You did not teach him if it was the matter of him not knowing, and you did not feed him if it was the matter of him being hungry. Give him back his cloak.’ And the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) ordered that I should be given a wasq or half a wasq ( measure of wheat).” (Al-Nisaa`i, al-Mujtabaa, Kitaab Aadaab al-Qudaat, Baab al-Isti’daa’; Saheeh Sunan al-Nisaa`i, no. 4999).

From this story we learn that we should find out the circumstances of the one who is making a mistake or acting in an aggressive manner, so that we may know the right way to deal with him.

We may also note that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not punish the owner of the garden, because he was in the right, but he had handled the matter wrong. He pointed out to him that the way he had dealt with someone who knew not better was inappropriate in such circumstances, then he taught him how to handle the matter properly, and told him to give back the garment he had taken from the hungry man.
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   الأربعاء سبتمبر 30, 2009 8:07 pm

الهدوء في التعامل مع المخطئ

وخصوصا عندما يؤدي القيام عليه والاشتداد في نهيه إلى توسيع نطاق المفسدة ويمكن أن نتبين ذلك من خلال مواجهة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لخطأ الأعرابي الذي بال في المسجد كما جاء عن أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ قَالَ: بَيْنَمَا نَحْنُ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِذْ جَاءَ أَعْرَابِيٌّ فَقَامَ يَبُولُ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ فَقَالَ أَصْحَابُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَهْ مَهْ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لا تُزْرِمُوهُ دَعُوهُ فَتَرَكُوهُ حَتَّى بَالَ ثُمَّ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ دَعَاهُ فَقَالَ لَهُ إِنَّ هَذِهِ الْمَسَاجِدَ لا تَصْلُحُ لِشَيْءٍ مِنْ هَذَا الْبَوْلِ وَلَا الْقَذَرِ إِنَّمَا هِيَ لِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَالصَّلاةِ وَقِرَاءَةِ الْقُرْآنِ أَوْ كَمَا قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ فَأَمَرَ رَجُلا مِنَ الْقَوْمِ فَجَاءَ بِدَلْوٍ مِنْ مَاءٍ فَشَنَّهُ عَلَيْهِ صحيح مسلم رقم 285

لقد كانت القاعدة التي اتبعها النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في مواجهة الخطأ: التيسير وعدم التعسير، فقد جاء في رواية البخاري عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه: أَنَّ أَعْرَابِيًّا بَالَ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ فَثَارَ إِلَيْهِ النَّاسُ ليَقَعُوا بِهِ فَقَالَ لَهُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ دَعُوهُ وَأَهْرِيقُوا عَلَى بَوْلِهِ ذَنُوبًا مِنْ مَاءٍ أَوْ سَجْلا مِنْ مَاءٍ فَإِنَّمَا بُعِثْتُمْ مُيَسِّرِينَ وَلَمْ تُبْعَثُوا مُعَسِّرِين فتح 6128

لقد تحمّس الصحابة رضوان الله عليهم لإنكار المنكر حرصا على طهارة مسجدهم وروايات الحديث تدلّ على ذلك ومنها: ـ

" فصاح به الناس " ــ " فثار إليه الناس " ــ " فزجره الناس " ــ فأسرع إليه الناس " وفي رواية " فقال أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: مه مه " جامع الأصول 7/83-87

ولكن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم نظر في عواقب الأمور وأن الأمر يدور بين احتمالين إما أن يُمنع الرجل وإما أن يُترك. وأنه لو مُنع فإما أن ينقطع البول فعلا فيحصل على الرجل ضرر من احتباس بوله وإما أن لا ينقطع ويتحرك خوفا منهم فيزداد انتشار النجاسة في المسجد أو على جسد الرجل وثيابه فرأى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بثاقب نظره أن ترك الرجل يبول هو أدنى المفسدتين وأهون الشرين خصوصا وأن الرجل قد شرع في المفسدة والنجاسة يمكن تداركها بالتطهير ولذلك قال لأصحابه: دعوه لا تُزرموه أي لا تحبسوه. فأمرهم بالكفّ لأجل المصلحة الراجحة وهو دفع أعظم المفسدتين باحتمال أيسرهما وتحصيل أعظم المصلحتين بترك أيسرهما

وقد جاء في رواية أنه صلى الله عليه وسلم سأل الرجل عن سبب فعله، فقد روى الطبراني في الكبير عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنه قال: أتى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أعرابي فبايعه في المسجد ثم انصرف فقام ففحج ثم بال فهمّ الناس به فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلّم: لا تقطعوا على الرجل بوله، ثم قال: ألست بمسلم ؟ قال: بلى، قال ما حملك على أن بُلت في مسجدنا ؟ قال: والذي بعثك بالحقّ ما ظننته إلا صعيدا من الصعدات فبلت فيه. فأمر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بذنوب من ماء فصبّ على بوله. رواه الطبراني في الكبير رقم 11552 ج11ص220 وقال الهيثمي في المجمع: رجاله رجال الصحيح 2/10

إن هذا الأسلوب الحكيم في المعالجة قد أحدث أثرا بالغا في نفس ذلك الأعرابي يتضح من عبارته كما جاء في رواية ابن ماجة: عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ دَخَلَ أَعْرَابِيٌّ الْمَسْجِدَ وَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ جَالِسٌ فَقَالَ اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِمُحَمَّدٍ وَلا تَغْفِرْ لأَحَدٍ مَعَنَا فَضَحِكَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَقَالَ لَقَدِ احْتَظَرْتَ وَاسِعًا ثُمَّ وَلَّى حَتَّى إِذَا كَانَ فِي نَاحِيَةِ الْمَسْجِدِ فَشَجَ (فرّج ما بين رجليه) يَبُولُ فَقَالَ الأَعْرَابِيُّ بَعْدَ أَنْ فَقِهَ فَقَامَ إِلَيَّ بِأَبِي وَأُمِّي فَلَمْ يُؤَنِّبْ وَلَمْ يَسُبَّ فَقَالَ إِنَّ هَذَا الْمَسْجِدَ لا يُبَالُ فِيهِ وَإِنَّمَا بُنِيَ لِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَلِلصَّلاةِ ثُمَّ أَمَرَ بِسَجْلٍ مِنْ مَاءٍ فَأُفْرِغَ عَلَى بَوْلِهِ سنن بن ماجة ط. عبد الباقي 529 وهو في صحيح بن ماجة 428

وقد ذكر بن حجر رحمه الله تعالى فوائد في شرح حديث الأعرابي منها:

* ــ الرفق بالجاهل وتعليمه ما يلزمه من غير تعنيف إذا لم يكن ذلك منه عنادا ولا سيما إن كان ممن يُحتاج إلى استئلافه.

* ــ وفيه رأفة النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وحسن خلقه.

* ــ وفيه أن الاحتراز من النجاسة كان مقررا في نفوس الصحابة ولهذا بادروا إلى الإنكار بحضرته صلى الله عليه وسلم قبل استئذانه ولما تقرر عندهم أيضا من طلب الأمر بالمعروف والنهي عن المنكر.
* ــ وفيه المبادرة إلى إزالة المفاسد عند زوال المانع لأمرهم عند فراغه بصبّ الماء. الفتح 1/324-325


Dealing with People Commiting Mistakes in a Calm Way


We can learn this from looking at how the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) dealt with the mistake made by the Bedouin who urinated in the mosque, as was reported by Anas ibn Maalik, who said:

“Whilst we were in the mosque with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), a Bedouin came and stood urinating in the mosque. The Companions of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘Stop it! Stop it!’ But the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘Do not interrupt him; leave him alone.’ So they left him until he had finished urinating, then the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) called him and said to him, ‘In these mosques it is not right to do anything like urinating or defecating; they are only for remembering Allaah, praying and reading Qur`aan,’ or words to that effect. Then he commanded a man who was there to bring a bucket of water and throw it over the (urine), and he did so.” (Saheeh Muslim, no. 285).

The principle which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) followed in dealing with this mistake was to treat the man gently, not to be harsh with him. Al-Bukhaari reported from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him):

“A Bedouin urinated in the mosque, and the people got up to sort him out. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to them, ‘Leave him alone, and throw a bucket of water over it. You have been sent to make things easy for people, not to make things hard.’ ” (Fath, 6128).

The Sahaabah, may Allaah be pleased with them, were very keen to denounce the bad thing they had seen and to keep their mosque clean and pure, as is indicated in the various reports of this hadeeth, which describe them as shouting at him, getting up to sort him out, rebuking him and hastening to deal with him, or telling him to “Stop it!” (Jaami’ al-Usool, 7/83-87). But the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was thinking of the likely consequences of the two options – stopping him or leaving him alone. If they tried to stop him, forcing a man to suppress his urination could do him harm, and if he was unable to stop but moved away because he was afraid of them, the impurity would be spread over a wider area of the mosque and on the man’s body and clothing. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had the farsightedness to see that leaving the man alone until he had finished urinating was the lesser of two evils, especially since the man had already started doing it, and it was a problem that they would be able to do something about by cleaning it afterwards. So he told his companions to leave him alone and not to interrupt him. He told them to leave him alone because this was in the better interests of all and would ward off a worse evil by putting up with the lesser evil.

It was also reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) asked the man the reason for his action. Al-Tabaraani reported in al-Kabeer that Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:

“A Bedouin came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and pledged allegiance to him in the mosque. Then he went away and started to urinate. The people wanted to stop him, but the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘Do not stop a man when he is urinating.’ Then he asked him, ‘Are you not a Muslim?’ He said, ‘Of course.’ He said, ‘What made you urinate in our mosque?’ He said, ‘By the One Who sent you with the truth, I thought it was just like any other place so I urinated in it.’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) called for a bucket of water and poured it over the urine.” (Reported by al-Tabaraani in al-Kabeer, no. 11552, vol. 11, p.220. Al-Haythami said in al-Majma’: its men are the men of saheeh, 2/10).

This wise manner of dealing with the problem had a far-reaching effect on the Bedouin, as is clear from his reaction. Ibn Maajah reported that Abu Hurayrah said:

“A Bedouin entered the mosque where the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was sitting, and said, ‘O Allaah, forgive me and Muhammad, and do not forgive anyone else.’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) smiled and said, ‘You are narrowing something vast.’ Then (the Bedouin) went away to the furthest part of the mosque, opened his legs, and began to urinate. After he had learnt better, the Bedouin said, ‘He got up, may my mother and my father be sacrificed for him, he did not rebuke me or insult me. He just said, “We do not urinate in this mosque; it was only built for the remembrance of Allaah and for prayer.” Then he called for a bucket of water and poured it over the urine.’ ” (Sunan Ibn Maajah, ‘Abd al-Baaqi edn., 529; Saheeh Ibn Maajah, 428).

Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) mentioned in his commentary a number of things we learn from the hadeeth about the Bedouin, among which are the following:

• We should be gentle when dealing with one who is ignorant and teach him what he needs to know without rebuking him, so long as he is not acting out of stubbornness, especially if he is one who needs to be won over.

• The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was kind and dealt nicely with him.

• The idea of taking precautions against impurity (najaasah) was well-established in the minds of the Sahaabah, which is why they hastened to denounce it in the presence of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) without first asking his permission. The idea of enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil was also well-established in their minds.

• We should also hasten to remove anything objectionable when there is nothing to stop us from doing so, because when the man had finished urinating, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) issued instructions that the place should be cleaned with water.
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   الخميس أكتوبر 01, 2009 6:14 pm

بيان خطورة الخطأ

عن ابن عمر ومحمد بن كعب وزيد بن أسلم وقتادة - دخل حديث بعضهم في بعض - أنه قال رجل في غزوة تبوك: ما رأينا مثل قرائنا هؤلاء أرغب بطونا، ولا أكذب ألسنا، ولا أجبن عند اللقاء. يعني رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وأصحابه القراء. فقال عوف بن مالك: كذبت ولكنك منافق، لأخبرن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فذهب عوف إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ليخبره، فوجد القرآن قد سبقه، فجاء ذلك الرجل إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، وقد ارتحل وركب ناقته فقال: يا رسول الله إنما كنا نخوض ونلعب ونتحدث حديث الركب نقطع به عنا الطريق، قال ابن عمر: كأني أنظر إليه متعلقا بنسعة ناقة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وإن الحجارة لتنكب رجليه وهو يقول: إنما كنا نخوض ونلعب فيقول رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم:{ قل أبالله وءاياته ورسوله كنتم تستهزءون } التوبة/65 وما يلتفت إليه وما يزيد عليه.

ورواه ابن جرير عن ابن عمر رضي الله عنه قال: قال رجل في غزوة تبوك في مجلس: ما رأينا مثل قرائنا هؤلاء، أرغب بطونا ولا أكذب ألسنا، ولا أجبن عند اللقاء ! فقال رجل في المجلس: كذبت، ولكنك منافق ! لأخبرن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ونزل القرآن. قال عبد الله بن عمر: فأنا رأيته متعلقا بحقب ناقة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم تنكبه الحجارة وهو يقول: يا رسول الله، إنما كنا نخوض ونلعب ! ورسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول: { أبالله وآياته ورسوله كنتم تستهزؤن * لا تعتذروا قد كفرتم بعد إيمانكم }. تفسير ابن جرير الطبري 14/333 ط. دار الكتب العلمية. الأولى 1412، ورجاله رجال الصحيح إلا هشام بن سعد فلم يخرج له مسلم إلا في الشواهد كما في الميزان، وأخرجه الطبري من طريقه وله شاهد بسند حسن عند ابن حاتم من حديث كعب بن مالك. (الصحيح المسند من أسباب النزول صـ 71).

Explaining the Seriousness of the Mistake

Ibn ‘Umar, Muhammad ibn Ka’b, Zayd ibn Aslam and Qutaadah reported (the following is compiled from their reports) that during the campaign of Tabook, a man said, “We have never seen anyone who loves food and tells lies more than our reciters, or anyone who is more cowardly on the battlefield” – referring to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and his Companions. ‘Awf ibn Maalik said, ‘You are lying! You are a hypocrite, and I am going to tell the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).’ ‘Awf went to the Messenger of Allaah to tell him, but found that Qur`aan had already been revealed concerning it. That man came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), who was riding his camel, and said, “O Messenger of Allaah, we were only talking idly and joking, just to pass time on the journey.” Ibn ‘Umar said, “It is as if I can see him hanging onto the reins of the Prophet’s camel, with the stones hitting his feet, saying, “We were only talking idly and joking,” whilst the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was reciting (interpretation of the meaning),

‘Say: Was it at Allaah and His aayaat (signs) and His Messenger that you were mocking?’ [al-Tawbah 9],

…no more, no less.”

Ibn Jareer reported that Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “During the campaign of Tabook a man said in a gathering, ‘We have never seen anyone who loves food and tells lies more than our reciters, or anyone who is more cowardly on the battlefield.’ A man who was present said, ‘You are lying! You are a hypocrite, and I am going to tell the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him),’ and Qur`aan was revealed.” ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar said, “I saw him hanging on to the reins of the Prophet’s camel, kicking up the stones and saying, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, we were only talking idly and joking,’ and the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was saying (interpretation of the meaning),

“Say: Was it at Allaah and His aayaat (signs) and His Messenger that you were mocking?” [al-Tawbah 9].

(Tafseer ibn Jareer al-Tabari, 14/333, Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, first edn., 1412. Its men are the men of saheeh, except Hishaam ibn Sa’d, from whom Muslim did not report except as a corroborating report, as in al-Meezaan. It was also reported by al-Tabari with his isnaad, and there is a corroborating report with a hasan isnaad recorded by Ibn Haatim from the hadeeth of Ka’b ibn Maalik. Saheeh al-Musnad min Asbaab al-Nuzool, p.71).
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   الجمعة أكتوبر 02, 2009 5:48 pm

بيان مضرة الخطأ

عن أَبي ثَعْلَبَةَ الْخُشَنِي قَالَ: كَانَ النَّاسُ إِذَا نَزَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَنْزِلا تَفَرَّقُوا فِي الشِّعَابِ وَالأَوْدِيَةِ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِنَّ تَفَرُّقَكُمْ فِي هَذِهِ الشِّعَابِ وَالأَوْدِيَةِ إِنَّمَا ذَلِكُمْ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ فَلَمْ يَنْزِلْ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ مَنْزِلا إِلا انْضَمَّ بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَى بَعْضٍ حَتَّى يُقَالَ لَوْ بُسِطَ عَلَيْهِمْ ثَوْبٌ لَعَمَّهُمْ رواه أبو داود رحمه الله تعالى في سننه 2286 وصححه الألباني في صحيح سنن أبي داود برقم 2288. وفي رواية: حَتَّى إِنَّكَ لَتَقُولُ لَوْ بَسَطْتُ عَلَيْهِمْ كِسَاءً لَعَمَّهُمْ أحمد: الفتح الرباني 14/44

ويُلاحظ رعاية النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لأصحابه، وفيه حرص القائد على مصلحة جنوده.

وأن تفرّق الجيش إذا نزل فيه تخويف الشيطان للمسلمين وإغراء للعدو بهم انظر عون المعبود 7/292 والتفرق يمنع بعض الجيش من معونة بعض انظر دليل الفالحين 6/130

ويُلاحظ امتثال أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لتوجيهه فيما استقبلوا من أمرهم.

ومن الأمثلة أيضا على بيان مضرة الخطأ وخطورته حديث النُّعْمَانَ بْنَ بَشِيرٍ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَتُسَوُّنَّ صُفُوفَكُمْ أَوْ لَيُخَالِفَنَّ اللَّهُ بَيْنَ وُجُوهِكُمْ رواه البخاري في صحيحه فتح رقم 717

وفي صحيح مسلم عَنْ سِمَاكِ بْنِ حَرْبٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ النُّعْمَان بن بَشِير يَقُولُ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يُسَوِّي صُفُوفَنَا حَتَّى كَأَنَّمَا يُسَوِّي بِهَا الْقِدَاحَ حَتَّى رَأَى أَنَّا قَدْ عَقَلْنَا عَنْهُ ثُمَّ خَرَجَ يَوْمًا فَقَامَ حَتَّى كَادَ يُكَبِّرُ فَرَأَى رَجُلا بَادِيًا صَدْرُهُ مِنَ الصَّفِّ فَقَالَ عِبَادَ اللَّهِ لَتُسَوُّنَّ صُفُوفَكُمْ أَوْ لَيُخَالِفَنَّ اللَّهُ بَيْنَ وُجُوهِكُمْ صحيح مسلم رقم 436

وروى النسائي عن أنس رضي الله عنه أَنَّ نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ رَاصُّوا صُفُوفَكُمْ وَقَارِبُوا بَيْنَهَا وَحَاذُوا بِالأَعْنَاقِ فَوَالَّذِي نَفْسُ مُحَمَّدٍ بِيَدِهِ إِنِّي لأَرَى الشَّيَاطِينَ تَدْخُلُ مِنْ خَلَلِ الصَّفِّ كَأَنَّهَا الْحَذَفُ (أي الغنم السود الصغار) المجتبى 2/92 صححه الألباني في صحيح سنن النسائي برقم 785.

فتبيين مفاسد الخطأ وما يترتب عليه من العواقب أمر مهم في الإقناع للمخطئ، وقد تكون عاقبة الخطأ على المخطئ نفسه وقد تتعدى إلى آخرين فمن الأول ما رواه أبو داود رحمه الله تعالى في سننه عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رضي الله عنهما أَنَّ رَجُلًا لَعَنَ الرِّيحَ وَقَالَ مُسْلِمٌ إِنَّ رَجُلا نَازَعَتْهُ الرِّيحُ رِدَاءهُ عَلَى عَهْدِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَلَعَنَهَا فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لا تَلْعَنْهَا فَإِنَّهَا مَأْمُورَةٌ وَإِنَّهُ مَنْ لَعَنَ شَيْئًا لَيْسَ لَهُ بِأَهْلٍ رَجَعَتِ اللَّعْنَةُ عَلَيْهِ أبو داود رقم 4908 وهو في صحيح أبي داود رقم 4102

ومثال الثاني ما رواه البخاري رحمه الله في صحيحه عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي بَكْرَةَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ أَثْنَى رَجُلٌ عَلَى رَجُلٍ عِنْدَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ (وفي رواية لمسلم: فَقَالَ رَجُلٌ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مَا مِنْ رَجُلٍ بَعْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَفْضَلُ مِنْهُ فِي كَذَا وَكَذَا صحيح مسلم رقم 3000) فَقَالَ وَيْلَكَ قَطَعْتَ عُنُقَ صَاحِبِكَ قَطَعْتَ عُنُقَ صَاحِبِكَ مِرَارًا ثُمَّ قَالَ مَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ مَادِحًا أَخَاهُ لا مَحَالَةَ فَلْيَقُلْ أَحْسِبُ فُلانًا وَاللَّهُ حَسِيبُهُ وَلا أُزَكِّي عَلَى اللَّهِ أَحَدًا أَحْسِبُهُ كَذَا وَكَذَا إِنْ كَانَ يَعْلَمُ ذَلِكَ مِنْهُ 2662 كتاب الشهادات وفي رواية البخاري في الأدب المُفرد عن محجن الأسلمي رضي الله عنه في قصة له قال: حتى إذا كنا في المسجد رأى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم رجلا يصلي ويسجد ويركع فقال لي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من هذا ؟ فأخذت أُطريه فقلت: يا رسول الله هذا فلان وهذا وهذا [ وفي رواية في الأدب المفرد أيضا هذا فلان وهو من أحسن أهل المدينة صلاة ] فقال: أمسك، لا تُسمعه فتهلكه. صحيح الأدب المفرد 137 وقال الألباني: حسن

وفي رواية للبخاري عَنْ أَبِي مُوسَى رَضِي اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ سَمِعَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ رَجُلًا يُثْنِي عَلَى رَجُلٍ وَيُطْرِيهِ فِي مَدْحِهِ فَقَالَ أَهْلَكْتُمْ أَوْ قَطَعْتُمْ ظَهَرَ الرَّجُلِ فتح 2663

فقد بيّن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم هنا لهذا المبالغ في المدح المخطئ فيه عاقبة خطئه وذلك أن الزيادة في الإطراء تُدخل في قلب الممدوح الغرور فيتيه بنفسه كبرا أو إعجابا وربما يفتر عن العمل متواكلا على الشهرة الآتية من المدح أو يقع في الرياء لما يحسّه من لذة المدح فيكون في ذلك هلاكه وهو ما عبّر عنه صلى الله عليه وسلم بقوله: " أهلكتم " أو " قطعتم عنق الرجل " أو " ظهر الرجل ".

ثم إن المادح قد يجازف في المدح ويقول ما لايتحققه ويجزم بما لا يستطيع الاطلاع عليه وقد يكذب وقد يرائي الممدوح بمدحه فتكون الطامة لاسيما إن كان الممدوح ظالما أو فاسقا انظر الفتح 10/478

والمدح ليس منهيا عنه بإطلاق وقد مدح النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أشخاصا وهم حضور وقد جاء في عنوان الباب في صحيح مسلم إيضاح مهم: بَاب النَّهْيِ عَنِ الْمَدْحِ إِذَا كَانَ فِيهِ إِفْرَاطٌ وَخِيفَ مِنْهُ فِتْنَةٌ عَلَى الْمَمْدُوحِ * كتاب الزهد والرقائق صحيح مسلم

والذي يعدّ نفسه مقصّرا لا يضره المدح وإذا مُدح لم يغترّ لأنه يعرف حقيقة نفسه قال بعض السلف: إذا مُدح الرجل في وجهه فليقل: اللهم اغفر لي ما لا يعلمون، ولا تؤاخذني بما يقولون، واجعلني خيرا مما يظنون. فتح 10/ 478.


Explaining the Harmful Effects of the Mistake

Abu Tha’labah al-Khashani said: “Whenever the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) broke his journey in a place, the people would disperse in the valleys and mountains. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said,

‘Your dispersing in these valleys and mountains is from Shaytaan.’ After that he never stopped anywhere but they all stayed close together, so much so that if a cloak was spread over them, it would cover them all.” (Reported by Abu Dawood (may Allaah have mercy on him), in his Sunan, 2286; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Sunan Abi Dawood, no. 2288).

According to another report:

“… until you would say that if you were to spread a cloth over them, it would cover them.” (Ahmad, al-Fath al-Rabbaani, 14/44).

Here we may note the Prophet’s concern for his Companions, which was the leader’s concern for his troops. The army’s dispersing when they made camp was a trick of the Shaytaan to make the Muslims scared and to lead the enemy to attack them. (See ‘Awn al-Ma’bood, 7/292). Dispersing in this manner would make it hard for one part of the army to come to the aid of another part. (See Daleel al-Faaliheen, 6/130).

We may also note that the Companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) obeyed him in whatever instructions they received from him.

Another example of how the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) explained how serious and dangerous a mistake was is to be seen in the hadeeth of al-Nu’maan ibn Basheer, according to which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“Straighten your rows (for prayer), or Allaah will make you divided.” (Reported by al-Bukhaari in his Saheeh, Fath, no. 717).

Muslim reported in his Saheeh from Sammaak ibn Harb, who said: “I heard al-Nu’maan ibn Basheer saying, ‘The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to straighten our rows strictly, until he realized that we had got the message. One day he came out and was about to say takbeer when he noticed a man whose chest was sticking out. He said,

‘O slaves of Allaah, straighten your rows, or Allaah will make you divided.’ ” (Saheeh Muslim, no. 436).

Al-Nisaa`i reported from Anas (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said,

“Make your rows firm and close together, and make your necks in a straight line, for by the One in Whose hand is the soul of Muhammad, I see the shayaateen (devils) coming among your ranks as if they are small black sheep.” (al-Mujtabaa, 2/92. Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Sunan al-Nisaa`i, no. 785).

Explaining bad effects and negative consequences is very important when it comes to convincing people that they are making a mistake. The consequences may affect the person himself, or they may spread to other people. An example of the former is the report narrated by Abu Dawood (may Allaah have mercy on him) in his Sunan from Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with them both), in which a man cursed the wind. Muslim said that a man’s cloak was snatched away by the wind at the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and he cursed the wind. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said,

“Do not curse it, for it only does as it is commanded, and if a person curses something that does not deserve to be cursed, his curse will come back upon him.” (Abu Dawood, no. 4908; Saheeh Abi Dawood, no. 4102).

An example of the latter was narrated by al-Bukhaari (may Allaah have mercy on him) in his Saheeh from ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Abi Bakrah from his father, who said: “A man praised another man in the presence of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).” According to a report narrated by Muslim: a man said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, there is no one other than the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) who is better than him in such-and-such.’ (Saheeh Muslim, no. 3000). [The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)] said to him,

‘Woe to you! You have cut your companion’s throat! You have cut your companion’s throat!’ several times, then he said, ‘If any one of you insists on praising his brother, let him say, “I think so-and-so is such-and-such, and Allaah knows the exact truth, and I do not confirm anyone’s good conduct before Allaah, but I think him to be such-and-such,” if he knows that this is the case.’ ” (2662, Kitaab al-Shahaadaat).

According to a report narrated by al-Bukhaari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, Mihjan al-Aslami (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:

“… until when we were in the mosque, the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) saw a man praying, prostrating and bowing. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to me, ‘Who is this?’ I started to praise him and said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, this is so-and-so, and he is such-and-such.’ (According to another report also in al-Adab al-Mufrad, he said, ‘This is so-and-so and he is one of the best people in Madeenah in prayer.’) He said, ‘Be quiet, lest he hear you and you destroy him.’ ” (Saheeh al-Adab al-Mufrad, 137; al-Albaani said, it is hasan).

Al-Bukhaari reported that Abu Moosa (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:

“The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) heard a man praising another man and going to extremes in that. He said, ‘You have destroyed him’ or ‘You have broken the man’s back.’” (Fath 2663).

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) explained that exaggeration when praising someone is a mistake which can have bad consequences. It may make the person who is praised feel proud, so that his heart is filled with arrogance and self-admiration, and he rests on his laurels or starts to show off because he enjoys the praise so much. This in turn may lead to his utimate doom, which is what the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) meant when he said, “You have destroyed him,” or “You have cut the man’s throat,” or “You have broken the man’s back.”

Moreover, if a person goes to extremes in praising someone, and says something he is not certain of, or affirms something he could not possibly know, or maybe even tells lies or says something to please the person he is praising, this will be a disaster, especially if the person he is praising is an oppressor or wrongdoer. (See al-Fath, 10/478).

Generally speaking, it is not forbidden to praise people. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) praised some people in their presence. An important explanation of this topic is to be found in Saheeh Muslim, where there is a chapter entitled Baab al-Nahy ‘an al-Mad’h idhaa kaana feehi ifraat wa kheefa minhu fitnatun ‘ala’l-mamdooh (Chapter: Prohibition of praising others if it is exaggerated or if there is the danger of fitnah for the one who is praised). (Kitaab al-Zuhd wa’l-Raqaa’iq, Saheeh Muslim).

The person who sees himself as falling short will not be damaged by praise, and if he is praised he will not become arrogant, because he knows his own true nature. Some of the salaf said: “If a man is praised to his face, let him say: ‘O Allaah, forgive me for what they do not know, do not hold me responsible for what they say, and make me better than what they think.” (Fath, 10/478).
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انثى عدد المساهمات : 208
تاريخ التسجيل : 09/09/2009
البلد : مــــــــصـــــــر

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   الجمعة أكتوبر 02, 2009 6:03 pm

تعليم المخظئ عملياً



في كثير من الأحيان يكون التعليم العملي أقوى وأشد أثرا من التعليم النظري وقد فعل ذلك النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقد روى جبير بن نفير عن أبيه أنه قدم على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فأمر له بوَضوء فقال: توضأ يا أبا جبير، فبدأ أبو جبير بفيه، فقال له رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لا تبتدأ بفيك يا أبا جبير فإن الكافر يبتدأ بفيه، ثم دعا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بوَضوء، فغسل كفيه حتى أنقاهما ثم تمضمض واستنشق ثلاثا وغسل وجهه ثلاثا وغسل يده اليمنى إلى المرفق ثلاثا واليسرى ثلاثا ومسح رأسه وغسل رجليه. رواه البيهقي في السنن 1/46 وهو في السلسلة الصحيحة رقم 2820

والملاحظ هنا أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم عمد إلى تنفير ذلك الصحابي من فعله المجانب للصواب عندما أخبره أن الكافر يبدأ بفيه ولعل المعنى أن الكافر لا يغسل كفيه قبل إدخالهما في الإناء أفادنيه العلامة الشيخ عبد العزيز بن باز عندما سألته عن شرح الحديث وهذا من عدم المحافظة على النظافة والله أعلم.



Teaching the one who Made a Mistake in a Practical Way

In many cases practical teaching is more effective than theoretical teaching. This is what the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did. Jubayr ibn Nufayr reported from his father that he came to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), who called for water, then said,

“Do wudoo’, O Abu Jubayr.” Abu Jubayr started with his mouth, and the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “Do not start with your mouth, O Abu Jubayr, for the kaafir starts with his mouth.” Then the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) called for water, and washed his hands until they were clean, then he rinsed his mouth and nose three times, washed his face three times, washed his right arm up to the elbow three times, and his left arm three times, wiped his head and washed his feet. (Reported by al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan, 1/46; al-Silsilat al-Saheehah, no. 2820).

We may note here that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) deliberately put this Sahaabi off from doing an incorrect action by telling him that the kaafir starts with his mouth; the meaning may be that the kaafir does not wash his hands before putting them in the vessel
In many cases practical teaching is more effective than theoretical teaching. This is what the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did. Jubayr ibn Nufayr reported from his father that he came to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), who called for water, then said,

“Do wudoo’, O Abu Jubayr.” Abu Jubayr started with his mouth, and the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “Do not start with your mouth, O Abu Jubayr, for the kaafir starts with his mouth.” Then the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) called for water, and washed his hands until they were clean, then he rinsed his mouth and nose three times, washed his face three times, washed his right arm up to the elbow three times, and his left arm three times, wiped his head and washed his feet. (Reported by al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan, 1/46; al-Silsilat al-Saheehah, no. 2820).

We may note here that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) deliberately put this Sahaabi off from doing an incorrect action by telling him that the kaafir starts with his mouth; the meaning may be that the kaafir does not wash his hands before putting them in the vessel
and that this is not hygienic


تقديم البديل الصحيح

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بن مسعود قَالَ كُنَّا إِذَا كُنَّا مَعَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي الصَّلاةِ قُلْنَا السَّلامُ عَلَى اللَّهِ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ السَّلامُ عَلَى فُلانٍ وَفُلانٍ (وفي رواية النسائي السلام على جبريل السلام على ميكائيل المجتبى: كتاب التطبيق: باب كيف التشهد الأول وهو في صحيح سنن النسائي رقم 1119) فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لا تَقُولُوا السَّلامُ عَلَى اللَّهِ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ السَّلامُ وَلَكِنْ قُولُوا التَّحِيَّاتُ لِلَّهِ وَالصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ السَّلامُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللَّهِ الصَّالِحِينَ فَإِنَّكُمْ إِذَا قُلْتُمْ أَصَابَ كُلَّ عَبْدٍ فِي السَّمَاءِ أَوْ بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا اللَّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ثُمَّ يَتَخَيَّرُ مِنَ الدُّعَاءِ أَعْجَبَهُ إِلَيْهِ فَيَدْعُو البخاري فتح 835

ومن هذا الباب أيضا ما روى أَنَس رضي الله عنه أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ رَأَى نُخَامَةً فِي الْقِبْلَةِ فَشَقَّ ذَلِكَ عَلَيْهِ حَتَّى رُئِيَ فِي وَجْهِهِ فَقَامَ فَحَكَّهُ بِيَدِهِ فَقَالَ إِنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ إِذَا قَامَ فِي صَلاتِهِ فَإِنَّهُ يُنَاجِي رَبَّهُ أَوْ إِنَّ رَبَّهُ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ الْقِبْلَةِ فَلا يَبْزُقَنَّ أَحَدُكُمْ قِبَلَ قِبْلَتِهِ وَلَكِنْ عَنْ يَسَارِهِ أَوْ تَحْتَ قَدَمَيْهِ ثُمَّ أَخَذَ طَرَفَ رِدَائِهِ فَبَصَقَ فِيهِ ثُمَّ رَدَّ بَعْضَهُ عَلَى بَعْضٍ فَقَالَ أَوْ يَفْعَلُ هَكَذَا رواه البخاري فتح 405

وفي رواية: لا يَتْفِلَنَّ أَحَدُكُمْ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَلا عَنْ يَمِينِهِ وَلَكِنْ عَنْ يَسَارِهِ أَوْ تَحْتَ رِجْلِهِ رواه البخاري الفتح 412

ومثال آخر: عن أبي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيَّ رَضِي اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ جَاءَ بِلالٌ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِتَمْرٍ بَرْنِيٍّ فَقَالَ لَهُ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مِنْ أَيْنَ هَذَا قَالَ بِلالٌ كَانَ عِنْدَنَا تَمْرٌ رَدِيٌّ فَبِعْتُ مِنْهُ صَاعَيْنِ بِصَاعٍ لِنُطْعِمَ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ أَوَّهْ أَوَّهْ عَيْنُ الرِّبَا عَيْنُ الرِّبَا لا تَفْعَلْ وَلَكِنْ إِذَا أَرَدْتَ أَنْ تَشْتَرِيَ فَبِعِ التَّمْرَ بِبَيْعٍ آخَرَ ثُمَّ اشْتَرِهِ رواه البخاري فتح 2312 وفي رواية: أَنَّ غُلامًا لِلنَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَتَاهُ ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ بِتَمْرٍ رَيَّانَ وَكَانَ تَمْرُ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بَعْلا فِيهِ يُبْسٌ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّى لَكَ هَذَا التَّمْرُ فَقَالَ هَذَا صَاعٌ اشْتَرَيْنَاهُ بِصَاعَيْنِ مِنْ تَمْرِنَا فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لا تَفْعَلْ فَإِنَّ هَذَا لا يَصْلُحُ وَلَكِنْ بِعْ تَمْرَكَ وَاشْتَرِ مِنْ أَيِّ تَمْرٍ شِئْتَ مسند أحمد 3/67.

والذي نجده في واقع بعض الدعاة الآمرين بالمعروف الناهين عن المنكر قصورا في دعوتهم عند إنكار بعض أخطاء الناس، وذلك بالاكتفاء بالتخطئة وإعلان الحرمة دون تقديم البديل أو بيان ما هو الواجب فعله إذا حصل الخطأ، ومعلوم من طريقة الشريعة أنها تقدّم البدائل عوضا عن أي منفعة محرمة فلما حرّمت الزنا شرعت النكاح ولما حرّمت الربا أباحت البيع ولما حرّمت الخنزير والميتة وكلّ ذي ناب ومخلب أباحت الذبائح من بهيمة الأنعام وغيرها وهكذا. ثمّ لو وقع الشخص في أمر محرّم فقد أوجدت له الشريعة المخرج بالتوبة والكفارة كما هو مبيّن في نصوص الكفارات. فينبغي على الدعاة أن يحذوا حذو الشريعة في تقديم البدائل وإيجاد المخارج الشرعية. من الأمثلة لتقديم البديل ذكر الحديث الصحيح الذي يُغني عن الحديث الضعيف أو الموضوع.

ومما تجدر الإشارة إليه أن مسألة تقديم البديل هي بحسب الإمكان والقدرة فقد يكون الأمر أحيانا خطأ يجب الامتناع عنه ولا يوجد في الواقع بديل مناسب إما لفساد الحال وبعد الناس عن شريعة الله أو أن الآمر الناهي لا يستحضر شيئا أو ليس لديه إلمام بالبدائل الموجودة في الواقع فهو سينكر ويُغيّر الخطأ ولو لم يوجد لديه بديل يقوله ويوجّه إليه وهذا يقع كثيرا في بعض التعاملات المالية وأنظمة الاستثمار التي نشأت في مجتمعات الكفار ونُقلت بما هي عليه من المخالفات الشرعية إلى مجتمعات المسلمين، وفي المسلمين من القصور والضعف ما يحول دون إيجاد البديل الشرعي وتعميمه. ولكن يبقى الحال أن ذلك قصور ونقص وأن المنهج الإلهي فيه البدائل والمخارج التي ترفع الحرج والعنت عن المسلمين علمها من علمها وجهلها من جهلها.


Offering the Right Alternative

. ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Mas‘ood said, “When we prayed with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), we used to say, “Peace be upon Allaah from His slaves, peace be upon so-and-so.” (According to a report narrated by al-Nisaa`i, he said, “Peace be upon Jibreel, peace be upon Mikaa’eel.” Al-Mujtabaa: Kitaab al-Tatbeeq, Baab Kayfa al-Tashahhud al-Awwal. See also Saheeh Sunan al-Nisaa`i, no. 1119). The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said,

“Do not say, ‘Peace be upon Allaah,’ for Allaah is ‘The Peace’ (al-Salaam). But you should say, ‘Al-Tahiyyaatu Lillaahi wa’l-salawaatu wa’l-tayyibaat, al-salaamu ‘alayka ayyuha’l-Nabiyyu wa rahmat-Allaahi wa barakaatuhu, wa’l-salaamu ‘alaynaa wa ‘alaa ‘ibaad-Illaah il-saaliheen.’ If you say this, it will include every slave of Allaah in heaven or between heaven and earth. [Then say:] ‘I bear witness that there is no god except Allaah and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.’ Then choose whichever du’aa’ you like, and recite it.” (al-Bukhaari, Fath, 835).

Another report that deals with this topic was narrated by Anas (may Allaah be please with him), who said that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) saw some sputum in the direction of the qiblah and this upset him so much that his anger could be seen on his face. He stood up and removed it with his hand, then said,

“When any one of you stands up to pray, he is talking to his Lord. His Lord is between him and the qiblah, so no one of you should spit in the direction of the qiblah; he should spit to his left or under his feet.” Then he took the edge of his cloak, spat on it and rubbed part of it against another part and said, “Or do like this.” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, Fath, 405).

Another example was reported by Abu Sa‘eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him), who said: “Bilaal came to the Prophet with some good-quality dates, and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) asked him,

‘Where is this from?’ Bilaal said, ‘We had some poor-quality dates, and I sold two measures of those for one measure of these so that we could give them to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).’ When he heard that, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “Oh, oh! The essence of ribaa, the essence of ribaa! Do not do that. If you want to buy, sell your dates for something else, then buy it.’” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, Fath, 2312).

According to another report, one day a slave belonging to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) brought him some fresh dates, but the Prophet’s dates were dry, so the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said,

‘Where did you get these dates from?’ He said, ‘We bought a measure of these for two measures of our dates.’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘Do not do this, because it is not right. Sell your dates first, then buy whatever dates you want.’ (Musnad Ahmad, 3/67).

But in the case of some da‘iyahs and people who seek to enjoin what is good and forbid what is evil, we notice that there is a shortcoming in their methods when they denounce some of the mistakes that people make. They only point out the mistakes and denounce them as haraam, without offering an alternative or explaining what must be done if one makes a mistake. It is known that the method of Islam is to offer alternatives to make up for any benefits that may have been gained through the haraam practice. When zinaa (fornication, adultery) was forbidden, marriage was allowed and prescribed; when ribaa (usury, interest) was forbidden, trading was allowed; when pork, dead meat and the flesh of every creature that has fangs or talons were forbidden, the meat of properly-slaughtered cattle and other animals was allowed, and so on. If a person does fall into error, Islam shows him the way out, through repentance and expiation, as is explained in the texts on kafaaraat (acts of expiation). So those who seek to call others to Islam must follow the sharee’ah in offering alternatives and finding acceptable ways out. (Another example of offering an alternative is to quote saheeh ahaadeeth which will replace da’eef and fabricated ahaadeeth).

It is worth pointing out here that offering alternatives is something that depends on what is possible. Sometimes a mistake may be something that has to be stopped, but there is no realistic alternative, either because the general situation is bad and people are far removed from the sharee’ah of Allaah, or because the one who is seeking to enjoin what is good and forbid what is evil cannot remember what the alternative is – all he wants to do is denounce the mistake and change it, even if he has no alternative to offer. This happens a great deal in the case of financial dealings and investment organizations, which emerged in kaafir societies and were brought, complete with all their Islamically unacceptable features, to Muslim societies; the Muslims have shortcomings and weaknesses that prevent them from creating Islamic alternatives and applying them everywhere. So those shortcomings and weaknesses remain, even though the divine methodology contains alternatives and ways out that could alleviate the Muslims’ hardships, and there are some who know this and some who do not.
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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رئيس لجنة الجرافيك والإعلام
رئيس لجنة الجرافيك والإعلام
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انثى عدد المساهمات : 222
تاريخ التسجيل : 09/09/2009

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   السبت أكتوبر 03, 2009 5:04 pm

الإرشاد إلى ما يمنع من وقوع الخطأ

عَنْ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ بْنِ سَهْلِ بْنِ حُنَيْفٍ أَنَّ أَبَاهُ حَدَّثَهُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ خَرَجَ وَسَارُوا مَعَهُ نَحْوَ مَكَّةَ حَتَّى إِذَا كَانُوا بِشِعْبِ الْخَزَّارِ مِنَ الْجُحْفَةِ اغْتَسَلَ سَهْلُ بْنُ حُنَيْفٍ وَكَانَ رَجُلًا أَبْيَضَ حَسَنَ الْجِسْمِ وَالْجِلْدِ فَنَظَرَ إِلَيْهِ عَامِرُ بْنُ رَبِيعَةَ أَخُو بَنِي عَدِيِّ بْنِ كَعْبٍ وَهُوَ يَغْتَسِلُ فَقَالَ مَا رَأَيْتُ كَالْيَوْمِ وَلَا جِلْدَ مُخَبَّأَةٍ (المخبأة: هي الفتاة في خدرها وهو كناية عن شدة بياضه) فَلُبِطَ سَهْلٌ (أي: صُرع وسقط على الأرض) فَأُتِيَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقِيلَ لَهُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ هَلْ لَكَ فِي سَهْلٍ وَاللَّهِ مَا يَرْفَعُ رَأْسَهُ وَمَا يُفِيقُ قَالَ هَلْ تَتَّهِمُونَ فِيهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ قَالُوا نَظَرَ إِلَيْهِ عَامِرُ بْنُ رَبِيعَةَ فَدَعَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَامِرًا فَتَغَيَّظَ عَلَيْهِ وَقَالَ عَلامَ يَقْتُلُ أَحَدُكُمْ أَخَاهُ هَلا إِذَا رَأَيْتَ مَا يُعْجِبُكَ بَرَّكْتَ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ اغْتَسِلْ لَهُ فَغَسَلَ وَجْهَهُ وَيَدَيْهِ وَمِرْفَقَيْهِ وَرُكْبَتَيْهِ وَأَطْرَافَ رِجْلَيْهِ وَدَاخِلَةَ إِزَارِهِ فِي قَدَحٍ ثُمَّ صُبَّ ذَلِكَ الْمَاءُ عَلَيْهِ يَصُبُّهُ رَجُلٌ عَلَى رَأْسِهِ وَظَهْرِهِ مِنْ خَلْفِهِ يُكْفِئُ الْقَدَحَ وَرَاءَهُ فَفَعَلَ بِهِ ذَلِكَ فَرَاحَ سَهْلٌ مَعَ النَّاسِ لَيْسَ بِهِ بَأْسٌ المسند 3/486 وقال الهيثمي: رجال أحمد رجال الصحيح، المجمع 5/107.

وفي رواية مالك رحمه الله عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي أُمَامَةَ بْنِ سَهْلِ بْنِ حُنَيْفٍ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ أَبَاهُ يَقُولُ اغْتَسَلَ أَبِي سَهْلُ بْنُ حُنَيْفٍ بِالْخَرَّارِ فَنَزَعَ جُبَّةً كَانَتْ عَلَيْهِ وَعَامِرُ بْنُ رَبِيعَةَ يَنْظُرُ قَالَ وَكَانَ سَهْلٌ رَجُلا أَبْيَضَ حَسَنَ الْجِلْدِ قَالَ فَقَالَ لَهُ عَامِرُ بْنُ رَبِيعَةَ مَا رَأَيْتُ كَالْيَوْمِ وَلا جِلْدَ عَذْرَاءَ قَالَ فَوُعِكَ سَهْلٌ مَكَانَهُ وَاشْتَدَّ وَعْكُهُ فَأُتِيَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَأُخْبِرَ أَنَّ سَهْلا وُعِكَ وَأَنَّهُ غَيْرُ رَائِحٍ مَعَكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَأَتَاهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَأَخْبَرَهُ سَهْلٌ بِالَّذِي كَانَ مِنْ أَمْرِ عَامِرٍ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَلامَ يَقْتُلُ أَحَدُكُمْ أَخَاهُ أَلا بَرَّكْتَ إِنَّ الْعَيْنَ حَقٌّ تَوَضَّأْ لَهُ فَتَوَضَّأَ لَهُ عَامِرٌ فَرَاحَ سَهْلٌ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَيْسَ بِهِ بَأْسٌ الموطأ رقم الحديث 1972.

وقد تضمنت هذه القصة:

ـ تغيظ المربي على من تسبب في إيذاء أخيه المسلم

ـ بيان مضرة الخطأ وأنه ربما يؤدي إلى القتل
ـ الإرشاد إلى ما يمنع من وقوع الضرر وإيذاء المسلم

Guiding People to Prevent them from Making Mistakes


Abu Umaamah ibn Sahl ibn Haneef reported that his father told him that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) went out, and they travelled with him in the direction of Makkah, until they reached the ravine of al-Khazzaar near al-Juhfah. Sahl ibn Haneef did ghusl, and he was a white man with a handsome body and beautiful skin. ‘Aamir ibn Rabee’ah, the brother of Banu ‘Adiyy ibn Ka’b looked at him whilst he was doing ghusl and said, ‘I have never seen anything like what I have seen today, not even the skin of the virgin who is hidden away!’ [referring to the whiteness of his skin]. Sahl fell to the ground (he had an epileptic fit). The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came and it was said to him,

‘Do you want to see Sahl? By Allaah, he cannot raise his head or wake up.’ He asked, ‘Whose fault is this?’ They said, ‘ ‘Aamir ibn Rabee’ah looked at him.’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) called ‘Aamir and rebuked him angrily, and said, ‘Why would any one of you kill his brother? If any one of you sees that his brother has something he likes, let him pray for blessing for him.’ Then he said to him, ‘Bathe yourself to help him’. So he washed his face, his hands up to the elbows, his knees, the sides of his feet and inside his izaar (lower garment) in a vessel. Then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘Pour that water over him.’ So he poured the water over his head and back from behind, tilting the vessel, and Sahl went with the people and there was nothing wrong with him.” (Al-Musnad, 3/486. Al-Haythami said, the men of Ahmad are the men of saheeh. Al-Majma’, 5/107)

According to a report narrated by Maalik (may Allaah have mercy on him), Muhammad ibn Abi Umaamah ibn Sahl ibn Haneef said that he heard his father saying: “Abu Sahl ibn Haneef did ghusl in al-Kharraar and took off the garment he was wearing. ‘Aamir ibn Rabee’ah was looking at him, and Sahl was a white man with beautiful skin. ‘Aamir ibn Rabee’ah said to him, ‘I have never seen anything like what I have seen today, not even the skin of the virgin!’. Sahl fell ill on the spot and became seriously ill. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came and was told, ‘Sahl has fallen ill, and cannot go with you, O Messenger of Allaah.’ Sahl told him what had happened with ‘Aamir, and the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said,

‘Why would any one of you kill his brother? You should have asked for blessing for him. The (evil) eye is real. Do wudoo’ to help him.” So ‘Aamir did wudoo’, and Sahl went with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and there was nothing wrong with him. (Al-Muwatta’, hadeeth no. 1972).

What we learn from this story is:

• The teacher (i.e., the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)) got angry with the one who caused harm to his Muslim brother.

• He explained the harmful effects of the mistake and that it could lead to death.

• He pointed the way to that which would prevent harm befalling a Muslim.
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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تاريخ التسجيل : 09/09/2009

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   السبت أكتوبر 03, 2009 5:11 pm

عدم مواجهه بعض المخطئين بالخطأ والاكتفاء بالبيان العام

عن أَنَسَ بْنَ مَالِكٍ حَدَّثَهُمْ قَالَ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَا بَالُ أَقْوَامٍ يَرْفَعُونَ أَبْصَارَهُمْ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ فِي صَلاتِهِمْ فَاشْتَدَّ قَوْلُهُ فِي ذَلِكَ حَتَّى قَالَ لَيَنْتَهُنَّ عَنْ ذَلِكَ أَوْ لَتُخْطَفَنَّ أَبْصَارُهُمْ رواه البخاري فتح حديث رقم 750

ولما أرادت عَائِشَةَ رضي الله عنها شراء جارية اسمها بريرة رفض أهلها بيعها إلا بشرط أن يَكُونَ الْوَلاءُ لَهُمْ فلما علم النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قَامَ فِي النَّاسِ فَحَمِدَ اللَّهَ وَأَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ مَا بَالُ رِجَالٍ يَشْتَرِطُونَ شُرُوطًا لَيْسَتْ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ مَا كَانَ مِنْ شَرْطٍ لَيْسَ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ فَهُوَ بَاطِلٌ وَإِنْ كَانَ مِائَةَ شَرْطٍ قَضَاءُ اللَّهِ أَحَقُّ وَشَرْطُ اللَّهِ أَوْثَقُ وَإِنَّمَا الْوَلاءُ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ القصة رواها البخاري رحمه الله تعالى في مواضع متعددة من صحيحه انظر فتح 5636

وعن عَائِشَةُ رضي الله عنها قالت: صَنَعَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ شَيْئًا فَرَخَّصَ فِيهِ فَتَنَزَّهَ عَنْهُ قَوْمٌ فَبَلَغَ ذَلِكَ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَخَطَبَ فَحَمِدَ اللَّهَ ثُمَّ قَالَ مَا بَالُ أَقْوَامٍ يَتَنَزَّهُونَ عَنِ الشَّيْءِ أَصْنَعُهُ فَوَ اللَّهِ إِنِّي لأعْلَمُهُمْ بِاللَّهِ وَأَشَدُّهُمْ لَهُ خَشْيَةً فتح 6101

وعَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ رَأَى نُخَامَةً فِي قِبْلَةِ الْمَسْجِدِ فَأَقْبَلَ عَلَى النَّاسِ فَقَالَ مَا بَالُ أَحَدِكُمْ يَقُومُ مُسْتَقْبِلَ رَبِّهِ فَيَتَنَخَّعُ أَمَامَهُ أَيُحِبُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَنْ يُسْتَقْبَلَ فَيُتَنَخَّعَ فِي وَجْهِهِ فَإِذَا تَنَخَّعَ أَحَدُكُمْ فَلْيَتَنَخَّعْ عَنْ يَسَارِهِ تَحْتَ قَدَمِهِ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَلْيَقُلْ هَكَذَا وَوَصَفَ الْقَاسِمُ فَتَفَلَ فِي ثَوْبِهِ ثُمَّ مَسَحَ بَعْضَهُ عَلَى بَعْضٍ صحيح مسلم رقم 550

وروى النسائي في سننه عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّهُ صَلَّى صَلاةَ الصُّبْحِ فَقَرَأَ الرُّومَ فَالْتَبَسَ عَلَيْهِ فَلَمَّا صَلَّى قَالَ مَا بَالُ أَقْوَامٍ يُصَلُّونَ مَعَنَا لا يُحْسِنُونَ الطُّهُورَ فَإِنَّمَا يَلْبِسُ عَلَيْنَا الْقُرْآنَ أُولَئِكَ سنن النسائي: المجتبى 2/ 156، رجاله ثقات وعبد الملك بن عمير قال عنه الحافظ: ثقة عالم تغير حفظه وربما دلّس ورواه أحمد رحمه الله تعالى عَنْ أَبِي رَوْحٍ الْكَلاعِيِّ قَالَ صَلَّى بِنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ صَلاةً فَقَرَأَ فِيهَا سُورَةَ الرُّومِ فَلَبَسَ عَلَيْهِ بَعْضُهَا قَالَ إِنَّمَا لَبَسَ عَلَيْنَا الشَّيْطَانُ الْقِرَاءةَ مِنْ أَجْلِ أَقْوَامٍ يَأْتُونَ الصَّلاةَ بِغَيْرِ وُضُوءٍ فإذا أتيتم الصلاة َ فَأَحْسِنُوا الْوُضُوءَ. وكذلك رواه عن شعبة عن عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ عُمَيْرٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ شَبِيبًا أَبَا رَوْحٍ يُحَدِّثُ عَنْ رَجُلٍ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّهُ صَلَّى الصُّبْحَ فَقَرَأَ فِيهَا الرُّومَ فَأَوْهَمَ فَذَكَرَهُ ورواه رحمه الله أيضا عن زائدة وسفيان عن عبد الملك المسند 3/473

والأمثلة كثيرة ويجمعها عدم فضح صاحب الخطأ. وأسلوب التعريض بالمخطئ وعدم مواجهته له فوائد منها:

1ـ تجنّب ردّ الفعل السلبي للمخطئ وإبعاده عن تزيين الشيطان له بالانتقام الشخصي والانتصار للنفس

2ـ أنه أكثر قبولا وتأثيرا في النفس

3ـ أنه أستر للمخطئ بين الناس

4ـ ازدياد منزلة المربي وزيادة المحبة للناصح

وينبغي الانتباه إلى أنّ أسلوب التعريض هذا لإيصال الحكم إلى المخطئ دون فضحه وإحراجه إنما يكون إذا كان أمر المخطئ مستورا لا يعرفه أكثر الناس أما إذا كان أكثر الحاضرين يعرفونه وهو يعلم بذلك فإن الأسلوب حينئذ قد يكون أسلوب تقريع وتوبيخ وفضح بالغ السوء والمضايقة للمخطئ بل إنه ربما يتمنى لو أنه ووجه بخطئه ولم يُستعمل معه ذلك الأسلوب. ومن الأمور المؤثرة فرْقا: من هو الذي يوجّه الكلام ؟ وبحضرة من يكون الكلام ؟ وهل كان بأسلوب الإثارة والاستفزاز أم بأسلوب النصح والإشفاق ؟
فالأسلوب غير المباشر أسلوب تربوي نافع للمخطئ ولغيره إذا استُعمل بحكمة.


Not Confronting People Directly with their Mistakes and Addressing the issue in General


Anas ibn Maalik said:

“The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘What is the matter with some people who raise their gaze to the heavens whilst they are praying?’ He spoke so harshly about them that he said, ‘They should stop doing that, or else Allaah will take away their sight.’” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, Fath, hadeeth no. 750).

When ‘Aa`ishah wanted to buy a slave-woman whose name was Bareerah, her owners refused to sell her except with the condition that she would still be connected to them. When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) found out about this, he stood up to address the people, praised and thanked Allaah, then said,

“What is wrong with men who impose conditions which are not mentioned in the Book of Allaah? There is no condition that is not mentioned in the Book of Allaah but it is invalid, even if there were one hundred such conditions. The decree of Allaah is more true, the conditions laid down by Allaah are more binding, and wala’ (connection, loyalty, allegiance) is to the one who sets the slave free.” (Reported by al-Bukhaari (may Allaah have mercy on him) in numerous places in his Saheeh. See Fath, 5636).

‘Aa`ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said:

“The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did something and made it permissible, but some people felt that they were above doing that. News of this reached the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), so he addressed the people. He praised and thanked Allaah, then he said, ‘What is the matter with people who think themselves above doing the things that I do? By Allaah, I know more about Allaah than they do, and I fear Him more than they do.’” (Fath, 6101).

Abu Hurayrah reported that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) saw sputum in the qiblah of the mosque, so he turned to the people and said,

“What is wrong with one of you that he stands facing his Lord and spits in front of Him? Would any of you like someone to face him and spit in his face? If any one of you wants to spit, let him spit towards his left, under his feet, and if he cannot do this, let him do this” – and al-Qaasim described how he spat on his garment and rubbed one part of it against another part. (Saheeh Muslim, no. 550).

Al-Nisaa`i reported in his Sunan that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) prayed Salaat al-Subh and recited Soorat al-Room, but got mixed up in his recitation. When he had finished praying, he said,

“What is the matter with people who pray with us but do not purify themselves properly? Such people are the ones who make us get mixed up when we recite Qur`aan.” (Sunan al-Nisaa`i, al-Mujtabaa, 2/156. Its men are thiqaat, but al-Haafiz said about ‘Abd al-Malik ibn ‘Umayr that he was thiqah but his memory changed and he may have fabricated reports).

Ahmad (may Allaah have mercy on him) reported that Abu Rawh al-Kalaa’i said:

“The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) led us in prayer and recited Soorat al-Room, but he got mixed up in part of the recitation. He said, ‘The Shaytaan made us get mixed up in our recitation, because of some people who come to the prayer without wudoo’. When you come to pray, do wudoo’ properly.’”

He also reported from Shu’bah from ‘Abd al-Malik ibn ‘Umayr, who said: “I heard Shabeeb Abu Rawh narrating from a man from among the Companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) who said that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) prayed Salaat al-Subh and recited Soorat al-Room, and got mixed up, and he narrated (the same hadeeth).” (It was also reported from Zaa’idah and Sufyaan from ‘Abd al-Malik. Al-Musnad, 3/473).

There are many examples, all of which indicate that the identity of the person who has made the mistake need not be exposed. This indirect approach and avoiding a direct confrontation has a number of benefits, including the following:

1. It avoids a negative reaction on the part of the person who has made the mistake, and prevents him from being tempted by the Shaytaan to avenge himself or defend himself.

2. It is more acceptable to people and is more effective.

3. It conceals the person’s mistake in front of other people.

4. It increases the status of the educator and makes the advisor more beloved.

It must be pointed out that this method of using hints to convey a ruling to a person who has made a mistake, without exposing him and causing him embarrassment, is only to be used when what he has done is not known to the majority of people. If most of the people do know what he has done, and he knows that they know, then this method would be more in the nature of a rebuke and scolding, and exposing him in the most hurtful manner. The one who has made a mistake would most likely rather be confronted directly than be dealt with in this manner. Among the factors that can make a difference are: who is giving the advice, in the presence of whom the advice is being given, and whether the advice is given in a provocative and aggressive manner, or in a kindly and gentle manner.

Indirect methods of teaching people may be of benefit to the one who has made the mistake and to others, if they are used wisely.
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
سما
رئيس لجنة الجرافيك والإعلام
رئيس لجنة الجرافيك والإعلام
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انثى عدد المساهمات : 222
تاريخ التسجيل : 09/09/2009

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   السبت أكتوبر 03, 2009 5:15 pm

إثارة العامة على المخطئ

وهذا يكون في أحوال معينة وينبغي أن يوزن وزنا دقيقا حتى لا تكون له مضاعفات سلبية وفيما يلي مثال نبوي لهذه الوسيلة:

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ جَاءَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَشْكُو جَارَهُ فَقَالَ اذْهَبْ فَاصْبِرْ فَأَتَاهُ مَرَّتَيْنِ أَوْ ثَلاثًا فَقَالَ اذْهَبْ فَاطْرَحْ مَتَاعَكَ فِي الطَّرِيقِ فَطَرَحَ مَتَاعَهُ فِي الطَّرِيقِ فَجَعَلَ النَّاسُ يَسْأَلُونَهُ فَيُخْبِرُهُمْ خَبَرَهُ فَجَعَلَ النَّاسُ يَلْعَنُونَهُ فَعَلَ اللَّهُ بِهِ وَفَعَلَ وَفَعَلَ فَجَاءَ إِلَيْهِ جَارُهُ فَقَالَ لَهُ ارْجِعْ لا تَرَى مِنِّي شَيْئًا تَكْرَهُهُ رواه أبو داود كتاب الأدب باب: في حق الجوار رقم 5153 وهو في صحيح أبي داود 4292
ويقابل هذا الأسلوب أسلوب آخر يُستخدم في أحوال أخرى ومع أشخاص آخرين في حماية المخطئ من إيذاء العامة ويبينه الفقرة التالية:

Provoking Public Opinion Against the One who has Made the Mistake

This method is only to be used in very limited circumstances, when a great deal of thought has been given to the matter, to avoid any negative escalation of the situation. There follows an example of how the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used this method. Abu Hurayrah said:

“A man came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and complained to him about his neighbour. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘Go and put up with him.’ The man came back two or three times, then the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘Go and put your belongings out in the street.’ So he went and put his belongings out in the street. People started to ask him what was going on, so he told them, and the people started to curse (the neighbour), saying, ‘May Allaah do such-and-such to him.’ Then the neighbour came to him and said, ‘Put your stuff back, you will not see anything else from me that you dislike.’” (Reported by Abu Dawood, Kitaab al-Adab, Baab fi Haqq al-Jiwaar, no. 5153; Saheeh Abi Dawood, 4292).

This method has an opposite counterpart which is used in other circumstances to protect people from the public’s harm, as will be explained below:
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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رئيس لجنة الجرافيك والإعلام
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   السبت أكتوبر 03, 2009 5:18 pm

تجنب إعانة الشيطان على المخطئ



عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ أَنَّ رَجُلًا عَلَى عَهْدِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ اسْمُهُ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ وَكَانَ يُلَقَّبُ حِمَارًا وَكَانَ يُضْحِكُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَكَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَدْ جَلَدَهُ فِي الشَّرَابِ فَأُتِيَ بِهِ يَوْمًا فَأَمَرَ بِهِ فَجُلِدَ فَقَالَ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ اللَّهُمَّ الْعَنْهُ مَا أَكْثَرَ مَا يُؤْتَى بِهِ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لا تَلْعَنُوهُ فَوَ اللَّهِ مَا عَلِمْتُ إِنَّهُ يُحِبُّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ رواه البخاري فتح 6780

وعَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَ أُتِيَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِسَكْرَانَ فَأَمَرَ بِضَرْبِهِ فَمِنَّا مَنْ يَضْرِبُهُ بِيَدِهِ وَمِنَّا مَنْ يَضْرِبُهُ بِنَعْلِهِ وَمِنَّا مَنْ يَضْرِبُهُ بِثَوْبِهِ فَلَمَّا انْصَرَفَ قَالَ رَجُلٌ مَا لَهُ أَخْزَاهُ اللَّهُ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لا تَكُونُوا عَوْنَ الشَّيْطَانِ عَلَى أَخِيكُمْ رواه البخاري فتح 6781

وعَنهْ رَضِي اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قال: أُتِيَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِرَجُلٍ قَدْ شَرِبَ قَالَ اضْرِبُوهُ قَالَ أَبُو هُرَيْرَةَ فَمِنَّا الضَّارِبُ بِيَدِهِ وَالضَّارِبُ بِنَعْلِهِ وَالضَّارِبُ بِثَوْبِهِ فَلَمَّا انْصَرَفَ قَالَ بَعْضُ الْقَوْمِ أَخْزَاكَ اللَّهُ قَالَ: [ فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ] لا تَقُولُوا هَكَذَا لا تُعِينُوا عَلَيْهِ الشَّيْطَانَ البخاري فتح 6777

وفي رواية ثُمَّ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لأَصْحَابِهِ بَكِّتُوهُ فَأَقْبَلُوا عَلَيْهِ يَقُولُونَ مَا اتَّقَيْتَ اللَّهَ مَا خَشِيتَ اللَّهَ وَمَا اسْتَحْيَيْتَ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ثُمَّ أَرْسَلُوهُ وَقَالَ فِي آخِرِهِ وَلَكِنْ قُولُوا اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لَهُ اللَّهُمَّ ارْحَمْهُ وَبَعْضُهُمْ يَزِيدُ الْكَلِمَةَ وَنَحْوَهَا أبو داود كتاب الحدود باب الحد في الخمر رقم 4478 4/620، صححه الألباني في صحيح سنن أبي داود برقم 3759

وفي رواية: فَلَمَّا انْصَرَفَ قَالَ بَعْضُ الْقَوْمِ أَخْزَاكَ اللَّهُ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لا تَقُولُوا هَكَذَا لا تُعِينُوا عَلَيْهِ الشَّيْطَانَ وَلَكِنْ قُولُوا رَحِمَكَ اللَّهُ رواه أحمد 2/300 قال أحمد شاكر: إسناده صحيح المسند ت. أحمد شاكر رقم 7973.

ويستفاد من مجموع هذه الروايات أنّ المسلم وإن وقع في معصية فإنه يبقى معه أصل الإسلام وأصل المحبة لله ورسوله فلا يجوز أن يُنفى عنه ذلك ولا أن يُدعى عليه بما يعين عليه الشيطان بل يُدعى له بالهداية والمغفرة والرحمة.


Avoiding Helping the Shaytaan Against the One who is Making a Mistake


‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab reported that at the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), there was a man called ‘Abd-Allaah whose nickname was Himaar (donkey), who used to make the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) laugh. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had him whipped for drinking – he was brought to him one day and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) gave orders that he should be whipped. One of the men present said, “O Allaah, curse him! How often has he been brought [to be punished because of drinking]!” The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said,

“Do not curse him, for by Allaah, all I know of him is that he loves Allaah and His Messenger.” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, Fath, 6780).

Abu Hurayrah said: “A drunkard was brought to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and he ordered that he should be beaten, so some of us hit him with our hands, others with shoes and garments. When he went away, a man said, ‘May Allaah put him to shame!’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said,

‘Do not be a help to the Shaytaan against your brother.’” (Reported by al-Bukhaari, al-Fath, 6781).

Abu Hurayrah also said:

“A man who had been drinking was brought to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and he said, ‘Beat him.’ Some of us hit him with our hands, others with shoes and clothes. When he went away, some of the people said, ‘May Allaah put you to shame!’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘Do not speak like this. Do not help the Shaytaan against him.’” (Al-Bukhaari, Fath, 6777)

According to another report:

“Then the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to his Companions, ‘Rebuke him.’ So they turned to him and said, ‘You did not think of Allaah, you did not fear Allaah, you did not feel ashamed before the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).’ Then they let him go, and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘Say, “O Allaah, forgive him, O Allaah, have mercy on him”’ and some of them added similar sentiments.” (Abu Dawood, Kitaab al-Hudood, Baab al-Hadd fi’l-Khamr, no. 4478, 4/620. Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood, no. 3759).

According to another report:

“When he went away, some of the people said, ‘May Allaah put you to shame!’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘Do not speak like this, do not help the Shaytaan against him. Say “May Allaah have mercy on you.”’” (Reported by Ahmad, 2/300. Ahmad Shaakir said, its isnaad is saheeh. Al-Musnad, ed. by Ahmad Shaakir, no. 7973).

What we learn from all of these reports is that if the Muslim falls into sin, he is still basically a Muslim and still basically loves Allaah and His Messenger, and this should not be denied. It is not permitted to pray against him in a manner that helps the Shaytaan against him; rather we should pray for him and ask Allaah to guide him, forgive him and have mercy on him.
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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انثى عدد المساهمات : 208
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   الأحد أكتوبر 04, 2009 5:30 pm

طلب الكف عن الفعل الخاطئ

من الأهمية بمكان إيقاف المخطئ عن الاستمرار في الخطأ حتى لا يزداد سوءا وحتى يحصل القيام بإنكار المنكر ولا يتأخر

عَنْ عُمَرَ أَنَّهُ قَالَ لا وَأَبِي فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَهْ إِنَّهُ مَنْ حَلَفَ بِشَيْءٍ دُونَ اللَّهِ فَقَدْ أَشْرَكَ رواه الإمام أحمد 1/47 وقال أحمد شاكر: إسناده صحيح رقم 329

"مه " كلمة زجر وإنكار بمعنى: اكفف

وروى أبو داود في سننه عن عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ بُسْرٍ رضي الله عنه قال: جَاءَ رَجُلٌ يَتَخَطَّى رِقَابَ النَّاسِ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ وَالنَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَخْطُبُ فَقَالَ لَهُ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ اجْلِسْ فَقَدْ آذَيْتَ

وروى الترمذي عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ قَالَ تَجَشَّأَ رَجُلٌ عِنْدَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ كُفَّ عَنَّا جُشَاءَكَ فَإِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ شِبَعًا فِي الدُّنْيَا أَطْوَلُهُمْ جُوعًا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ غَرِيبٌ مِنْ هَذَا الْوَجْهِ سنن الترمذي رقم 2478 وهو في السلسلة الصحيحة رقم 343

ففي هذه الأحاديث الطلب المباشر من المخطئ بالكفّ والامتناع عن فعله


Asking the Person to Stop Doing the Wrong Action

It is very important to make the person stop the wrong deed so that it does not get any worse and so that there is no delay in the denunciation of evil. ‘Umar reported that he said, “No, by my father.” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said,

“Stop! Whoever swears by something other than Allaah, is guilty of shirk.” (Reported by Imaam Ahmad, 1/47. Ahmad Shaakir said, its isnaad is saheeh. No. 329)

Abu Dawood reported in his Sunan that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Busr (may Allaah be pleased with him) said, “A man came stepping over the necks on the people (in the mosque) one Friday, whilst the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was delivering the khutbah. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said,

‘Sit down! You are causing a disturbance.’”

Al-Tirmidhi reported that Ibn ‘Umar said: “A man burped in the presence of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). He said,

‘Keep your burps away from us! The ones who fill their stomachs most in this world, will be the ones who remain hungry longest on the Day of Resurrection. (Abu ‘Eesa said, this is a ghareeb hasan hadeeth with this isnaad. Sunan al-Tirmidhi, no. 2478; al-Silsilat al-Saheehah, no. 343.)

These ahaadeeth show a direct request to the person who is making the mistake to stop what he is doing
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   الأحد أكتوبر 04, 2009 6:12 pm

ارشاد المخطئ الى تصحيح خطئه

وقد كان ذلك من النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بعدة أساليب منها:

ـ محاولة لفت نظر المخطئ إلى خطئه ليقوم بتصحيحه بنفسه

ومن الأمثلة على ذلك ما رواه أَبِو سَعِيدٍ الخدري رضي الله عنه وكان مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ فَدَخَلُ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَرَأَى رَجُلا جَالِسًا وَسَطَ الْمَسْجِدِ مُشَبِّكًا بَيْنَ أَصَابِعِهِ يُحَدِّثُ نَفْسَهُ فَأَوْمَأَ إِلَيْهِ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَلَمْ يَفْطِنْ قَالَ فَالْتَفَتَ إِلَى أَبِي سَعِيدٍ فَقَالَ إِذَا صَلَّى أَحَدُكُمْ فَلا يُشَبِّكَنَّ بَيْنَ أَصَابِعِهِ فَإِنَّ التَّشْبِيكَ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ فَإِنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ لا يَزَالُ فِي صَلاةٍ مَا دَامَ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ حَتَّى يَخْرُجَ مِنْهُ رواه أحمد في مسنده 3/54 وقال الهيثمي في المجمع: إسناده حسن 2/25

ـ طلب إعادة الفعل على الوجه الصحيح إذا كان ذلك ممكنا

فعن أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِي اللَّهُ عَنْهُ أَنَّ رَجُلًا دَخَلَ الْمَسْجِدَ وَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ جَالِسٌ فِي نَاحِيَةِ الْمَسْجِدِ فَصَلَّى ثُمَّ جَاءَ فَسَلَّمَ عَلَيْهِ فَقَالَ لَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَعَلَيْكَ السَّلامُ ارْجِعْ فَصَلِّ فَإِنَّكَ لَمْ تُصَلِّ فَرَجَعَ فَصَلَّى ثُمَّ جَاءَ فَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ وَعَلَيْكَ السَّلامُ فَارْجِعْ فَصَلِّ فَإِنَّكَ لَمْ تُصَلِّ فَقَالَ فِي الثَّانِيَةِ أَوْ فِي الَّتِي بَعْدَهَا عَلِّمْنِي يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَقَالَ إِذَا قُمْتَ إِلَى الصَّلاةِ فَأَسْبِغِ الْوُضُوءَ ثُمَّ اسْتَقْبِلِ الْقِبْلَةَ فَكَبِّرْ ثُمَّ اقْرَأْ بِمَا تَيَسَّرَ مَعَكَ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ ثُمَّ ارْكَعْ حَتَّى تَطْمَئِنَّ رَاكِعًا ثُمَّ ارْفَعْ حَتَّى تَسْتَوِيَ قَائِمًا ثُمَّ اسْجُدْ حَتَّى تَطْمَئِنَّ سَاجِدًا ثُمَّ ارْفَعْ حَتَّى تَطْمَئِنَّ جَالِسًا ثُمَّ اسْجُدْ حَتَّى تَطْمَئِنَّ سَاجِدًا ثُمَّ ارْفَعْ حَتَّى تَطْمَئِنَّ جَالِسًا ثُمَّ افْعَلْ ذَلِكَ فِي صَلاتِكَ كُلِّهَا رواه الجماعة واللفظ للبخاري فتح 6251

ومن الملاحظ:

* أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان ينتبه لأفعال الناس من حوله كي يعلمهم وقد وقع في رواية النسائي: أَنَّ رَجُلا دَخَلَ الْمَسْجِدَ فَصَلَّى وَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَرْمُقُهُ وَنَحْنُ لا نَشْعُرُ فَلَمَّا فَرَغَ أَقْبَلَ فَسَلَّمَ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ ارْجِعْ فَصَلِّ فَإِنَّكَ لَمْ تُصَلِّ.. الحديث 2/193 صحيح سنن النسائي رقم 1008

فمن صفة المربي أن يكون يقظا لأفعال من معه

* إن من الحكمة في التعليم طلب إعادة الفعل من المخطئ لعله ينتبه إلى خطئه فيصححه بنفسه خصوصا إذا كان الخطأ ظاهرا لا ينبغي أن يحدث منه وربما يكون ناسيا فيتذكر

* إن المخطئ إذا لم ينتبه إلى خطئه وجب البيان والتفصيل

* إن إعطاء المعلومة للشخص إذا اهتم بمعرفتها وسأل عنها وتعلقت بها نفسه أوقع أثرا في حسّه وأحفظ في ذهنه من إعطائه إياها ابتداء دون سؤال ولا تشوّف.

إن وسائل التعليم كثيرة يختار منها المربي ما يُناسب الحال والظرف.

ومن أمثلة طلب إعادة الفعل الخاطئ على الوجه الصحيح أيضا ما رواه مسلم رحمه الله تعالى في صحيحه عَنْ جَابِرٍ أَخْبَرَنِي عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ أَنَّ رَجُلا تَوَضَّأَ فَتَرَكَ مَوْضِعَ ظُفُرٍ عَلَى قَدَمِهِ فَأَبْصَرَهُ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ ارْجِعْ فَأَحْسِنْ وُضُوءَكَ فَرَجَعَ ثُمَّ صَلَّى صحيح مسلم 243

ومثال ثالث فيما رواه الترمذي رحمه الله تعالى في سننه عن كَلَدَةَ بْنَ حَنْبَلٍ أَنَّ صَفْوَانَ بْنَ أُمَيَّةَ بَعَثَهُ بِلَبَنٍ وَلِبَأٍ وَضَغَابِيسَ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَالنَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِأَعْلَى الْوَادِي قَالَ فَدَخَلْتُ عَلَيْهِ وَلَمْ أُسَلِّمْ وَلَمْ أَسْتَأْذِنْ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ارْجِعْ فَقُلِ السَّلامُ عَلَيْكُمْ أَأَدْخُلُ رواه الترمذي رقم 2710 قال الترمذي حديث حسن غريب وضغابيس هو حشيش يؤكل والحديث في صحيح سنن الترمذي رقم 2180

ـ طلب تدارك ما أمكن لتصحيح الخطأ

فقد روى البخاري رحمه الله تعالى في صحيحه عن ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ لا يَخْلُوَنَّ رَجُلٌ بِامْرَأَةٍ إِلا مَعَ ذِي مَحْرَمٍ فَقَامَ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ امْرَأَتِي خَرَجَتْ حَاجَّةً وَاكْتُتِبْتُ فِي غَزْوَةِ كَذَا وَكَذَا قَالَ ارْجِعْ فَحُجَّ مَعَ امْرَأَتِكَ الفتح 5233

ـ إصلاح آثار الخطأ

روى النسائي رحمه الله تعالى في سننه عن عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو أَنَّ رَجُلا أَتَى النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ إِنِّي جِئْتُ أُبَايِعُكَ عَلَى الْهِجْرَةِ وَلَقَدْ تَرَكْتُ أَبَوَيَّ يَبْكِيَانِ قَالَ ارْجِعْ إِلَيْهِمَا فَأَضْحِكْهُمَا كَمَا أَبْكَيْتَهُمَا المجتبى 7/143 وصححه الألباني في صحيح سنن النسائي برقم 3881.

ـ الكفارة عن الخطأ

إذا كانت بعض الأخطاء لا يمكن استدراكها فإن الشريعة قد جعلت أبوابا أُخر لمحو أثرها ومن ذلك الكفارات وهي كثيرة ككفارة اليمين والظهار وقتل الخطأ والوطء في نهار رمضان وغيرها.


Lead the Person who is Making a Mistake to Correct it

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did this in a number of ways, including the following:

- Drawing an individual’s attention to his mistake so that he could put it right himself. An example of this is the report narrated by Abu Sa‘eed al-Khudri (may Allaah be pleased with him), who said that he was with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) entered and saw a man sitting in the middle of the mosque, clasping his fingers together and talking to himself. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) gestured towards him, but he did not notice. So he turned to Abu Sa‘eed and said,

‘If one of you is praying, he should not clasp his fingers together, because this clasping comes from the Shaytaan, and you are in a state of prayer so long as you are still in the mosque, until you go out.’” (Reported by Ahmad in his Musnad, 3/54. Al-Haythami said in al-Majma’ (2/25): its isnaad is hasan).

- Asking the person to do something again, correctly, if this is possible. Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) reported that a man entered the mosque whilst the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was sitting in a far corner. He prayed, then he came and greeted him with salaam. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said,

“Wa ‘alayka al-salaam, go back and pray, because you have not prayed.” So he went back and prayed, then he came back and greeted the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), who said, “Wa ‘alayka al-salaam, go back and pray, because you have not prayed.” On the second occasion, or subsequently, the man said, “Teach me, O Messenger of Allaah.” He said, “When you stand up to pray, do wudoo’ properly, then face the qiblah and say Takbeer (‘Allaahu akbar’). Then recite whatever is easy for you of Qur`aan, then bow until you are at ease in rukoo’, then stand up until your back is completely straight. Then prostrate until you are at ease in sujood, then sit up until you are at ease in your sitting, then prostrate again until you are at ease in your sujood, then sit up again until you are at ease in your sitting. Do this in all your prayers.” (Reported by all; this version reported by al-Bukhaari, Fath, 6251).

We should note that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to pay attention to the actions of the people around him so that he could teach them. According to a report narrated by al-Nisaa`i:

“A man entered the mosque and prayed, whilst the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was watching him and we did not realize. When he finished, he turned and greeted the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), who told him, ‘Go back and pray, for you have not prayed’…” (2/193 Saheeh Sunan al-Nisaa`i, no. 1008).

Among the qualities of the educator is that he should be aware of the actions of those who are with him.

1. It is a part of educational wisdom to ask a person who has made a mistake to re-do his action, so that he can notice his mistake and put it right himself, especially when it is an obvious mistake that does not befit him. He may have done it out of forgetfulness, so this will remind him.

2. If the person who has made a mistake does not realize it, it must be pointed out and explained to him.

3. Giving information to a person who is interested and has asked about it himself is more effective and is more likely to be remembered than handing it out to someone who has not made any such enquiries.

The methods of teaching are many, and the educator can choose whichever are best suited in any given circumstances.

Another example of asking a person to repeat his action correctly is given by Muslim (may Allaah have mercy on him) in his Saheeh, where he reports that Jaabir said:

“ ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab told me that a man did wudoo’, but missed an area on his foot the size of a fingernail. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) saw him and said, ‘Go back and do your wudoo’ properly.’ So he went and did it again, then he prayed.” (Saheeh Muslim, 243).

A third example was narrated by al-Tirmidhi (may Allaah have mercy on him) in his Sunan from Kildah ibn Hanbal, who said that Safwaan ibn Umayyah sent him with some milk, yoghurt and daghaabees [an edible plant] to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), when the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was at the top of the valley. He said,

“I entered upon him, and I did not greet him with salaam or ask permission to enter, so the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘Go out and say “Al-salaamu ‘alaykum, may I enter?” ’ ” (Reported by al-Tirmidhi, no. 2710. Al-Tirmidhi said, a ghareeb hasan hadeeth. The hadeeth is also in Saheeh Sunan al-Tirmidhi, no. 2180).



- Asking the person who has made the mistake to correct it as much as he can. Al-Bukhaari (may Allaah have mercy on it) reported from Ibn ‘Abbaas that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said,

“No man should be alone with a woman unless he is a mahram (close blood relative to whom marriage is permanently forbidden).” A man stood up and said, “O Messenger of Allaah, my wife has gone out for Hajj and I have signed up for such-and-such a military campaign.” He said, “Go back and do Hajj with your wife.” (al-Fath, 5233).



- Putting right the consequences of the mistake. Al-Nisaa`i (may Allaah have mercy on him) reported in his Sunan from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr that a man came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said,

“I have come to pledge allegiance to you and to make hijrah (migration) to you. I have left my parents weeping.” He said, “Go back to them and make them smile as you made them weep.” (Al-Majmaa 7/143. Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Sunan al-Nisaa`i, no. 3881).



- Offering kafaarah (expiation) for the mistake. If some mistakes cannot be corrected or reversed, then there are other ways offered by Islam for wiping out their effects. One of these ways is kafaaraat or acts of expiation, of which there are many types, such as kafaarat al-yameen (expiation for swearing an unfulfilled oath), and expiation for zihaar (a jaahili form of divorce in which one says to one's wife “You are to me as my mother’s back”), manslaughter, having intercourse during the day in Ramadaan, and so on.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   السبت أكتوبر 10, 2009 9:12 pm

إنكار موضع الخطأ وقبول الباقي

قد لا يكون الكلام أو الفعل كله خطأ فيكون من الحكمة الاقتصار في الإنكار على موضع الخطأ وعدم تعميم التخطئة لتشمل سائر الكلام أو الفعل، يدلّ على ذلك ما أخرجه البخاري رحمه الله تعالى في صحيحه عن الرُّبَيِّعِ بِنْتِ مُعَوِّذِ بْنِ عَفْرَاءَ قالت: جَاءَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَدَخَلَ حِينَ بُنِيَ عَلَيَّ فَجَلَسَ عَلَى فِرَاشِي كَمَجْلِسِكَ مِنِّي فَجَعَلَتْ جُوَيْرِيَاتٌ لَنَا يَضْرِبْنَ بِالدُّفِّ وَيَنْدُبْنَ مَنْ قُتِلَ مِنْ آبَائِي يَوْمَ بَدْرٍ إِذْ قَالَتْ إِحْدَاهُنَّ وَفِينَا نَبِيٌّ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي غَدٍ فَقَالَ دَعِي هَذِهِ وَقُولِي بِالَّذِي كُنْتِ تَقُولِينَ فتح 5147 وفي رواية الترمذي: فَقَالَ لَهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ اسْكُتِي عَنْ هَذِهِ وَقُولِي الَّذِي كُنْتِ تَقُولِينَ قَبْلَهَا قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ سنن الترمذي طبعة شاكر 1090

وفي رواية ابن ماجة فَقَالَ أَمَّا هَذَا فَلا تَقُولُوهُ مَا يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي غَدٍ إِلا اللَّهُ سنن ابن ماجة ط. عبدالباقي رقم 1879 وصححه الألباني في صحيح سنن ابن ماجه برقم 1539.

ولا شك أن مثل هذا التصرّف يُشعر المخطئ بانصاف وعدل القائم بالإنكار والتصحيح ويجعل تنبيهه أقرب للقبول في نفس المخطئ بخلاف بعض المُنكرين الذين قد يغضب أحدهم من الخطأ غضبا يجعله يتعدّى في الإنكار يصل به إلى تخطئة ورفض سائر الكلام بما اشتمل عليه من حق وباطل مما يسبّب عدم قبول كلامه وعدم انقياد المخطئ للتصحيح.

وبعض المخطئين لا يكون خطؤهم في ذات الكلام الذي تفوّهوا به ولكن في المناسبة التي قالوا فيها ذلك الكلام كمثل قول البعض عند وفاة شخص: الفاتحة ثمّ يقرؤها الحاضرون وقد يحتجون بأن ما قرأوه قرآنا وليس كفرا فلا بدّ أن يبيّن لهم أنّ الخطأ في فعلهم هو في تخصيص الفاتحة بهذه المناسبة على وجه التعبّد دون دليل شرعي وهذه هي البدعة بعينها. وهذا المعنى هو الذي لفت إليه ابن عمر رضي الله عنه نظر رجل عَطَسَ إِلَى جَنْبِه فَقَالَ: الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَالسَّلامُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ فقَالَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ وَأَنَا أَقُولُ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَالسَّلامُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ وَلَيْسَ هَكَذَا عَلَّمَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَلَّمَنَا أَنْ نَقُولَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ عَلَى كُلِّ حَالٍ سنن الترمذي رقم 2738

Denouncing only the Mistake whilst Accepting the Rest

It may be the case that not all of what a person says or does is wrong, so it is wise to limit our denunciation only to that which is wrong, and not to generalize by condemning everything that is said or done as being wrong. This is indicated in the report narrated by al-Bukhaari (may Allaah have mercy on him) in his Saheeh from al-Rubay’ bint Mu’awwadh ibn ‘Afraa’, who said:

“The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came and entered, and sat down on my bed the way you sat down. Some young girls of ours began beating on the daff (hand-drum) and singing songs eulogizing those of our forefathers who had been killed at Badr. Then one of them said, ‘Among us there is a Prophet who knows the future.’ He [the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)] said: ‘Do not say that; say what you were saying before.’” (Fath, 5147). According to a report narrated by al-Tirmidhi: “… The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to her: ‘Do not say this; say what you were saying before.’” (Abu ‘Eesa said: this is a saheeh hasan hadeeth. Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Shaakir edn., 1090). According to a report narrated by Ibn Maajah, he said: “Do not say this; no one knows the future except Allaah.” (Sunan Ibn Maajah, ‘Abd al-Baaqi edn., no. 1879. Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Sunan Ibn Maajah, no. 1539).

There is no doubt that this kind of treatment makes the person feel that the one who is striving to point out mistakes and correct them is fair and just, and this makes him more likely to accept his advice. This is in contrast to some of those who want to denounce errors, but get so angry with the mistake committed that they go to extremes in their denunciation and condemn everything done and said by the one who has made the mistake, good and bad alike. This makes the person reject what they say and refuse to follow their advice.

In some cases, the mistake consists not of the words themselves, but the occasion or context in which they are uttered. For example, when somebody dies, one person may say, “Al-Faatihah,” and everyone present will recite it. They believe that there is nothing wrong with this because what they are reciting is Qur`aan, not words of kufr. It has to be explained to them that what is wrong with this action is thinking that we should recite al-Faatihah on such occasions as an act of worship without any shar'i evidence for doing so, which is the essence of bid’ah. This is what Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) pointed out to a man who sneezed beside him and said, “Al-hamdu Lillaahi wa’l-salaam ‘ala Rasool- Illaah (Praise be to Allaah and peace be upon the Messenger of Allaah).” Ibn ‘Umar said, “I could say ‘Al-hamdu Lillaahi wa’l-salaam ‘ala Rasool- Illaah’, but this is not how the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) taught us. He taught us to say ‘Al-hamdu Lillaahi ‘ala kulli haal (Praise be to Allaah whatever the circumstances).” (Sunan al-Tirmidhi, no. 2738).
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   السبت أكتوبر 10, 2009 9:20 pm

إعادة الحق إلى صاحبه وحفظ مكانة المخطئ

روى مسلم عَنْ عَوْفِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ قَالَ قَتَلَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ حِمْيَرَ رَجُلا مِنَ الْعَدُوِّ فَأَرَادَ سَلَبَهُ فَمَنَعَهُ خَالِدُ بْنُ الْوَلِيدِ وَكَانَ وَالِيًا عَلَيْهِمْ فَأَتَى رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَوْفُ بْنُ مَالِكٍ فَأَخْبَرَهُ فَقَالَ لِخَالِدٍ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَنْ تُعْطِيَهُ سَلَبَهُ قَالَ اسْتَكْثَرْتُهُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ ادْفَعْهُ إِلَيْهِ فَمَرَّ خَالِدٌ بِعَوْفٍ فَجَرَّ بِرِدَائِهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ هَلْ أَنْجَزْتُ لَكَ مَا ذَكَرْتُ لَكَ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَسَمِعَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَاسْتُغْضِبَ فَقَالَ لا تُعْطِهِ يَا خَالِدُ لا تُعْطِهِ يَا خَالِدُ هَلْ أَنْتُمْ تَارِكُونَ لِي أُمَرَائِي إِنَّمَا مَثَلُكُمْ وَمَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ رَجُلٍ اسْتُرْعِيَ إِبِلا أَوْ غَنَمًا فَرَعَاهَا ثُمَّ تَحَيَّنَ سَقْيَهَا فَأَوْرَدَهَا حَوْضًا فَشَرَعَتْ فِيهِ فَشَرِبَتْ صَفْوَهُ وَتَرَكَتْ كَدْرَهُ فَصَفْوُهُ لَكُمْ وَكَدْرُهُ عَلَيْهِمْ مسلم بشرح النووي 12/64

ورواه الإمام أحمد رحمه الله بسياق أتم من هذا عن عَوْفِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ الأَشْجَعِيِّ قَالَ غَزَوْنَا غَزْوَةً إِلَى طَرَفِ الشَّامِ فَأُمِّرَ عَلَيْنَا خَالِدُ بْنُ الْوَلِيدِ قَالَ فَانْضَمَّ إِلَيْنَا رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَمْدَادِ حِمْيَرَ فَأَوَى إِلَى رَحْلِنَا لَيْسَ مَعَهُ شَيْءٌ إِلا سَيْفٌ لَيْسَ مَعَهُ سِلاحٌ غَيْرَهُ فَنَحَرَ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ جَزُورًا فَلَمْ يَزَلْ يَحْتَلْ حَتَّى أَخَذَ مِنْ جِلْدِهِ كَهَيْئَةِ الْمِجَنِّ حَتَّى بَسَطَهُ عَلَى الأَرْضِ ثُمَّ وَقَدَ عَلَيْهِ حَتَّى جَفَّ فَجَعَلَ لَهُ مُمْسِكًا كَهَيْئَةِ التُّرْسِ فَقُضِيَ أَنْ لَقِينَا عَدُوَّنَا فِيهِمْ أَخْلاطٌ مِنَ الرُّومِ وَالْعَرَبِ مِنْ قُضَاعَةَ فَقَاتَلُونَا قِتَالا شَدِيدًا وَفِي الْقَوْمِ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الرُّومِ عَلَى فَرَسٍ لَهُ أَشْقَرَ وَسَرْجٍ مُذَهَّبٍ وَمِنْطَقَةٍ مُلَطَّخَةٍ ذَهَبًا وَسَيْفٌ مِثْلُ ذَلِكَ فَجَعَلَ يَحْمِلُ عَلَى الْقَوْمِ وَيُغْرِي بِهِمْ فَلَمْ يَزَلْ ذَلِكَ الْمَدَدِيُّ يَحْتَالُ لِذَلِكَ الرُّومِيِّ حَتَّى مَرَّ بِهِ فَاسْتَقْفَاهُ فَضَرَبَ عُرْقُوبَ فَرَسِهِ بِالسَّيْفِ فَوَقَعَ ثُمَّ أَتْبَعَهُ ضَرْبًا بِالسَّيْفِ حَتَّى قَتَلَهُ فَلَمَّا فَتَحَ اللَّهُ الْفَتْحَ أَقْبَلَ يَسْأَلُ لِلسَّلَبِ وَقَدْ شَهِدَ لَهُ النَّاسُ بِأَنَّهُ قَاتِلُهُ فَأَعْطَاهُ خَالِدٌ بَعْضَ سَلَبِهِ وَأَمْسَكَ سَائِرَهُ فَلَمَّا رَجَعَ إِلَى رَحْلِ عَوْفٍ ذَكَرَهُ فَقَالَ لَهُ عَوْفٌ ارْجِعْ إِلَيْهِ فَلْيُعْطِكَ مَا بَقِيَ فَرَجَعَ إِلَيْهِ فَأَبَى عَلَيْهِ فَمَشَى عَوْفٌ حَتَّى أَتَى خَالِدًا فَقَالَ أَمَا تَعْلَمُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَضَى بِالسَّلَبِ لِلْقَاتِلِ قَالَ بَلَى قَالَ فَمَا يَمْنَعُكَ أَنْ تَدْفَعَ إِلَيْهِ سَلَبَ قَتِيلِهِ قَالَ خَالِدٌ اسْتَكْثَرْتُهُ لَهُ قَالَ عَوْفٌ لَئِنْ رَأَيْتُ وَجْهَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لأَذْكُرَنَّ ذَلِكَ لَهُ فَلَمَّا قَدِمَ الْمَدِينَةَ بَعَثَهُ عَوْفٌ فَاسْتَعْدَى إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَدَعَا خَالِدًا وَعَوْفٌ قَاعِدٌ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَا يَمْنَعُكَ يَا خَالِدُ أَنْ تَدْفَعَ إِلَى هَذَا سَلَبَ قَتِيلِهِ قَالَ اسْتَكْثَرْتُهُ لَهُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَقَالَ ادْفَعْهُ إِلَيْهِ قَالَ فَمَرَّ بِعَوْفٍ فَجَرَّ عَوْفٌ بِرِدَائِهِ فَقَالَ لِيَجْزِي لَكَ مَا ذَكَرْتُ لَكَ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَسَمِعَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَاسْتُغْضِبَ فَقَالَ لا تُعْطِهِ يَا خَالِدُ هَلْ أَنْتُمْ تَارِكِي أُمَرَائِي إِنَّمَا مَثَلُكُمْ وَمَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ رَجُلٍ اسْتُرْعِيَ إِبِلا أَوْ غَنَمًا فَرَعَاهَا ثُمَّ تَخَيَّرَ سَقْيَهَا فَأَوْرَدَهَا حَوْضًا فَشَرَعَتْ فِيهِ فَشَرِبَتْ صَفْوَةَ الْمَاءِ وَتَرَكَتْ كَدَرَهُ فَصَفْوُهُ لَكُمْ وَكَدَرُهُ عَلَيْهِمْ

ونلاحظ أن خالدا لما أخطأ في اجتهاده بمنع القاتل من السلب الكثير أمر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بوضع الأمر في نصابه بإعادة الحق إلى صاحبه ولكنه عليه الصلاة والسلام غضب لما سمع عوفا رضي الله عنه يعرّض بخالد ويتهكم عليه بقوله: هل أنجزت لك ما ذكرت لك من رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، وكان عوف قد جرّ برداء خالد لمّا مرّ بجانبه فقال صلى الله عليه وسلم: لا تُعطه يا خالد وهذا من باب ردّ الاعتبار إلى الأمير والقائد لأن في حفظ مكانته بين الناس مصلحة ظاهرة.

وقد يرد هنا الإشكال الآتي: إذا كان القاتل قد استحق السلب فكيف يمنعه إياه ؟ أجاب النووي رحمه الله عن ذلك بوجهين:

أحدهما: لعله أعطاه بعد ذلك للقاتل وإنما أخّره تعزيرا له ولعوف بن مالك لكونهما أطلقا ألسنتهما في خالد رضي الله عنه وانتهكا حرمة الوالي ومن ولاّه.

الوجه الثاني: لعله استطاب قلب صاحبه فتركه صاحبه باختياره وجعله للمسلمين، وكان المقصود بذلك استطابة قلب خالد رضي الله عنه للمصلحة في إكرام الأمراء. الفتح الرباني 14/84

ومن شواهد مسألة إعادة الاعتبار لمن أُخطِئ عليه ما جاء في مسند الإمام أحمد عَنْ أَبِي الطُّفَيْلِ عَامِرِ بْنِ وَاثِلَةَ أَنَّ رَجُلا مَرَّ عَلَى قَوْمٍ فَسَلَّمَ عَلَيْهِمْ فَرَدُّوا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامَ فَلَمَّا جَاوَزَهُمْ قَالَ رَجُلٌ مِنْهُمْ وَاللَّهِ إِنِّي لأُبْغِضُ هَذَا فِي اللَّهِ فَقَالَ أَهْلُ الْمَجْلِسِ بِئْسَ وَاللَّهِ مَا قُلْتَ أَمَا وَاللَّهِ لَنُنَبِّئَنَّهُ قُمْ يَا فُلانُ رَجُلا مِنْهُمْ فَأَخْبِرْهُ قَالَ فَأَدْرَكَهُ رَسُولُهُمْ فَأَخْبَرَهُ بِمَا قَالَ فَانْصَرَفَ الرَّجُلُ حَتَّى أَتَى رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مَرَرْتُ بِمَجْلِسٍ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ فِيهِمْ فُلانٌ فَسَلَّمْتُ عَلَيْهِمْ فَرَدُّوا السَّلامَ فَلَمَّا جَاوَزْتُهُمْ أَدْرَكَنِي رَجُلٌ مِنْهُمْ فَأَخْبَرَنِي أَنَّ فُلانًا قَالَ وَاللَّهِ إِنِّي لأُبْغِضُ هَذَا الرَّجُلَ فِي اللَّهِ فَادْعُهُ فَسَلْهُ عَلَى مَا يُبْغِضُنِي فَدَعَاهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ فَسَأَلَهُ عَمَّا أَخْبَرَهُ الرَّجُلُ فَاعْتَرَفَ بِذَلِكَ وَقَالَ قَدْ قُلْتُ لَهُ ذَلِكَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَلِمَ تُبْغِضُهُ قَالَ أَنَا جَارُهُ وَأَنَا بِهِ خَابِرٌ وَاللَّهِ مَا رَأَيْتُهُ يُصَلِّي صَلاةً قَطُّ إِلا هَذِهِ الصَّلاةَ الْمَكْتُوبَةَ الَّتِي يُصَلِّيهَا الْبَرُّ وَالْفَاجِرُ قَالَ الرَّجُلُ سَلْهُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ هَلْ رَآنِي قَطُّ أَخَّرْتُهَا عَنْ وَقْتِهَا أَوْ أَسَأْتُ الْوُضُوءَ لَهَا أَوْ أَسَأْتُ الرُّكُوعَ وَالسُّجُودَ فِيهَا فَسَأَلَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ لا ثُمَّ قَالَ وَاللَّهِ مَا رَأَيْتُهُ يَصُومُ قَطُّ إِلا هَذَا الشَّهْرَ الَّذِي يَصُومُهُ الْبَرُّ وَالْفَاجِرُ قَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ هَلْ رَآنِي قَطُّ أَفْطَرْتُ فِيهِ أَوِ انْتَقَصْتُ مِنْ حَقِّهِ شَيْئًا فَسَأَلَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ لا ثُمَّ قَالَ وَاللَّهِ مَا رَأَيْتُهُ يُعْطِي سَائِلا قَطُّ وَلا رَأَيْتُهُ يُنْفِقُ مِنْ مَالِهِ شَيْئًا فِي شَيْءٍ مِنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِخَيْرٍ إِلا هَذِهِ الصَّدَقَةَ الَّتِي يُؤَدِّيهَا الْبَرُّ وَالْفَاجِرُ قَالَ فَسَلْهُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ هَلْ كَتَمْتُ مِنَ الزَّكَاةِ شَيْئًا قَطُّ أَوْ مَاكَسْتُ فِيهَا طَالِبَهَا قَالَ فَسَأَلَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ لا فَقَالَ لَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قُمْ إِنْ أَدْرِي لَعَلَّهُ خَيْرٌ مِنْكَ ورد في المسند بعد هذا الحديث مباشرة ما يلي: حَدَّثَنَا يَعْقُوبُ حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ أَنَّهُ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ رَجُلا فِي حَيَاةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَرَّ عَلَى قَوْمٍ وَلَمْ يَذْكُرْ أَبَا الطُّفَيْلِ قَالَ عَبْد اللَّهِ بَلَغَنِي أَنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنَ سَعْدٍ حَدَّثَ بِهَذَا الْحَدِيثِ مِنْ حِفْظِهِ وَقَالَ عَنْ أَبِي الطُّفَيْلِ حَدَّثَ بِهِ ابْنُهُ يَعْقُوبُ عَنْ أَبِيهِ فَلَمْ يَذْكُرْ أَبَا الطُّفَيْلِ فَأَحْسِبُهُ وَهِمَ وَالصَّحِيحُ رِوَايَةُ يَعْقُوبَ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ * المسند 5/455 وقال الهيثمي رجال أحمد ثقات أثبات المجمع 1/291

ومن الأمور المهمة حفظ مكانة المخطئ بعد توبته ورجوعه لكي يثبت على الاستقامة ويمارس حياة عادية بين الناس وقد جاء في قصة المرأة المخزومية التي قُطعت يدها عن عائشة رضي الله عنها: فَحَسُنَتْ تَوْبَتُهَا بَعْدُ وَتَزَوَّجَتْ وَكَانَتْ تَأتِينِي بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَأَرْفَعُ حَاجَتَهَا إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ صحيح مسلم رقم 1688 وقد تقدم

Restoring Rights and Preserving Positions

Muslim reported that ‘Awf ibn Maalik said:

“A man of Humayr killed one of the enemy and wanted to take his possessions as booty, but Khaalid ibn al-Waleed, who was in charge of the campaign, prevented him from doing so. ‘Awf ibn Maalik came to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and told him about it. He asked Khaalid, ‘What stopped you from giving him his booty?’ Khaalid said, ‘I thought it was too much, O Messenger of Allaah.’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘Give it to him.’ Then Khaalid passed by ‘Awf, who pulled his cloak and said, ‘Did I not do what I told you I would do with regard to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)?’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) heard him and got angry, and said, ‘Do not give it to him, O Khaalid! Do not give it to him, O Khaalid! Why do you not leave my commanders alone? The likeness of you and them is that of a man who is asked to take care of camels or sheep, so he takes care of them, then when it is time for them to drink, he takes them to a trough and they start to drink, and they drink the clean water and leave the dregs behind. You take the clean water and leave the dregs for them [the commanders].’” (Muslim bi Sharh al-Nawawi, 12/64)

Imaam Ahmad transmitted a more complete version of this report from ‘Awf ibn Maalik al-Ashja’i, who said:

“We went out on a military campaign on the border of Syria, and Khaalid ibn al-Waleed was appointed as our commander. A man belonging to Humayr came and joined our band, and he had nothing but a sword, no other weapon. One of the Muslims slaughtered a camel and that man kept trying to snatch something until he managed to grab a piece of skin the shape of a shield. He spread it on the ground and cured it until it was dry, then he made a handle for it, like a shield. We met with the enemy, who were a mixed group of Romans and Arabs from (the tribe of) Qudaa’ah. They fought us fiercely. Among them was a Roman on a palomino horse with a golden-coloured saddle and a gold-plated belt, and a sword of similar material. He started attacking and challenging the people, and that Madadi man kept dodging around the Roman until he approached him from behind and struck the horse’s hamstring with his sword. The Roman fell off, and the man followed that with a blow from his sword that killed him. When Allaah granted them victory, the man came asking about the booty, and the people bore witness that he had killed [that Roman], so Khaalid gave him some of the booty and withheld the rest. When he came back to ‘Awf’s band, he told him about it, and ‘Awf said, ‘Go back to him and let him give you the rest.’ So he went back, but [Khaalid] refused to give it to him. ‘Awf went to Khaalid and said, ‘Do you not know that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) ruled that the booty should go to the one who kills?’ He said, ‘Of course.’ He said, ‘So what is stopping you from giving him his booty?’ He said, ‘I thought it was too much to give to him.’ ‘Awf said, ‘When I see the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) I am going to tell him about this.’ When he came to Madeenah, ‘Awf sent the man and he complained to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) called Khaalid, whilst ‘Awf was sitting there, and said:

‘O Khaalid, what stopped you from giving this man his spoils of war?’ He said, ‘I thought it was too much for him, O Messenger of Allaah.’ [The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)] said, ‘Give it to him.’ [Khaalid] passed by ‘Awf, and ‘Awf pulled on his cloak and said, ‘Wasn’t it enough for you what I told you about the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)?’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) heard him and got angry, and said, ‘Do not give it to him, O Khaalid. Why do you not leave my commanders alone? The likeness of you and them is that of a man who is asked to take care of camels or sheep, so he takes care of them, then when it is time for them to drink, he takes them to a trough and they start to drink, and they drink the clean water and leave the dregs behind. You take the clean water and leave the dregs for them [the commanders].’”

We may note here that when Khaalid made a mistake in his decision (ijtihaad) to withhold the large amount of booty from the killer, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded that the matter should be put right by giving the booty to its rightful owner, but he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) got angry when he heard ‘Awf (may Allaah be pleased with him) making insinuations about Khaalid and poking fun at him by saying,

“Did I not do what I told you I would do with regard to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)?” and pulling on Khaalid’s cloak when he walked past him, so he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “Do not give it to him, O Khaalid.”

This was for the purpose of reinstating and reinforcing the position of the commander and leader, because upholding the leader’s position in front of the people serves an obvious purpose.

But the following question may arise: If the killer had the right to the booty, how could he deny it to him? Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) answered this query with two possible outcomes:

Either he gave the booty to the man later on, and he delayed it as a punishment to him and to ‘Awf for saying what they said to Khaalid (may Allaah be pleased with him) and showing disrespect to the commander and the one who had appointed him; or the one who had the right to take it gave it up willingly and donated it for the Muslims, and the point of this was to make Khaalid (may Allaah be pleased with him) feel better for the purpose of upholding the position of leaders. (Al-Fath al-Rabbaani, 14/8 4)

Further evidence concerning restoration of the position of the person who has been wronged comes in the report narrated in the Musnad of Imaam Ahmad from Abu Tufayl ‘Aamir ibn Waathilah, that a man passed by a group of people and greeted them with salaam, and they returned the greeting, but when he had gone, one of them said, “By Allaah, I hate this man for the sake of Allaah.” The others present said, “What a bad thing to say! By Allaah, we are going to tell him. Get up, O So-and-So – one of the people present – and tell him.” So their messenger caught up with him and told him what had been said. The man went to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said, “O Messenger of Allaah, I passed by a group of Muslims among whom was So-and-So. I greeted them with salaam and they returned the greeting, and when I had left, one of them caught up with me and told me that So-and-So had said, ‘By Allaah, I hate this man for the sake of Allaah.’ Call him and ask him why he hates me.” So the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) called him and asked him about what the man had said. He admitted it and said, “I did say that, O Messenger of Allaah.” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said,

“Why do you hate him?” He said, “I am his neighbour and I know him very well. By Allaah, I have never seen him pray any prayer except the prescribed prayer which everyone, good and bad alike, prays.” The man said, “Ask him, O Messenger of Allaah, has he ever seen me delaying any prayer, or not doing wudoo’ properly, or not doing rukoo’ and sujood properly?” He said, “No,” then he said, “By Allaah, I have never seen him fast at all except this month which everyone, good and bad alike, fasts.” He said, “O Messenger of Allaah, has he ever seen me breaking my fast during [that month], or doing anything to invalidate my fast?” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) asked him, and he said, “No,” then he said, “By Allaah, I have never seen him giving to any needy person or spending any of his wealth for the sake of Allaah except for this charity [zakaah] which everyone, good and bad alike, gives.” He said, “Ask him, O Messenger of Allaah, have I ever withheld any part of the zakaah or kept it back from the one who asked for it?” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) asked him and he said, “No.” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “I don’t know, maybe he is better than you.”

Immediately following this report in al-Musnad, it says the following: “Ya’qoob told us, my father told us from Ibn Shihaab, that he was told that a man at the time of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) passed by a group of people. He did not mention Abu al-Tufayl. Abu ‘Abd-Allaah said: I heard that Ibraaheem ibn Sa’d reported this hadeeth from his memory and said concerning Abu al-Tufayl that his son Ya’qoob narrated from his father, but he did not mention Abu al-Tufayl. I think he is mistaken, and the report of Ya’qoob is saheeh, And Allaah knows best.” (Al-Musnad, 5/455. Al-Haythami said: the men of Ahmad are thiqaat. Athbaat al-Majma’, 1/291).

It is very important to maintain a person’s position after he has repented from his mistake and set matters straight, so that he will remain on the right path and live a normal life among people. It was reported in the story of the Makhzoomi woman who had her hand cut off (for stealing), which was reported by ‘Aa`ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her), that “she repented properly later on, and she got married and used to come to me and I would tell the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon her) what she needed.” (Saheeh Muslim, no. 1688).
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   الأحد أكتوبر 11, 2009 5:49 pm

توجيه الكلام إلى طرفي النزاع في الخطأ المشترك
في كثير من الأحيان يكون الخطأ مشتركا ويكون المخطئ مخطَأً عليه في الوقت نفسه ولكن نسبة الخطأ ربما تتفاوت بين الطرفين فينبغي توجيه الكلام والنصح إلى طرفي الخطأ وفيما يلي مثال:

عن عبد الله بن أبي أوفى قال: شكا عبد الرحمن بن عوف خالد بن الوليد إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: يا خالد لا تُؤذ رجلا من أهل بدر فلو أنفقت مثل أحد ذهبا لم تدرك عمله فقال: يقعون فيّ فأردّ عليهم فقال: لا تُؤذوا خالدا فإنه سيف من سيوف الله عز وجل صبه الله على الكفار. قال الهيثمي: رجال الطبراني ثقات المجمع 9/349 وانظر المعجم الكبير للطبراني حديث رقم:3801

Addressing both Parties in Cases where the Blame is Shared
In many cases, the blame is shared and the person who makes a mistake may himself have been wronged, but the blame is not to be shared equally. In this case both parties must be addressed and advised. There follows an example. ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Abi Awfaa said: “ ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf complained about Khaalid ibn al-Waleed to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

‘Do not upset any of those who were present at Badr, for even if you were to spend gold equal to the size of Uhud, your deeds would not equal theirs.’ He said, ‘They insulted me first, and I responded.’ The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘Do not upset Khaalid, for he is one of the swords of Allaah sent against the kuffaar.’” (Al-Haythami said: the men of al-Tabaraani are thiqaat. Al-Majma’, 9/349. See also al-Mu’jam al-Kabeer by al-Tabaraani, hadeeth no. 3801).
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   الأحد أكتوبر 11, 2009 5:50 pm

مطالبة المخطئ بالتحلل ممن اخطأ عليه
عن أنس بن مالك رضي الله عنه قال كانت العرب تخدم بعضها بعضا في الأسفار وكان مع أبي بكر وعمر رجل يخدمهما فناما فاستيقظا ولم يهيئ لهما طعاما فقال أحدهما لصاحبه إن هذا لنؤوم (هذا في تفسير ابن كثير في ط. دار الشعب وفي اللفظ الذي ساقه الألباني في السلسلة الصحيحة برقم 2608 إن هذا ليوائم نوم نبيكم صلى الله عليه وسلم وفي رواية ليوائم نوم بيتكم) فأيقظاه فقالا ائت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقل له إن أبا بكر وعمر يُقرئانك السلام وهما يستأدمانك (أي يطلبان الإدام للطعام) فقال: أقرئهما السلام وأخبرهما أنهما قد ائتدما !

ففزعا فجاءا إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقالا يا رسول الله بعثنا إليك نستأدمك فقلت قد ائتدما فبأي شيء ائتدمنا ؟ قال: بلحم أخيكما، والذي نفسي بيده إني لأرى لحمه بين أنيابكما. يعني لحم الذي استغاباه، قالا: فاستغفر لنا، قال: هو فليستغفر لكما. السلسلة الصحيحة رقم 2608 وعزاه إلى الخرائطي في مساوئ الأخلاق والضياء في المختارة وأورده ابن كثير في تفسير سورة الحجرات 7/363 ط. دار الشعب

Asking the Person to Forgive the One who Wronged him

Anas ibn Maalik (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The Arabs used to serve one another when they were travelling, and Abu Bakr and ‘Umar had a man with them who was serving them. They fell asleep then woke up, and he had not prepared any food for them. One of them said to the other, ‘This man sleeps too much.’ (This is in Tafseer Ibn Katheer, Daar al-Sha’b edn. According to the version quoted by al-Albaani in al-Silsilat al-Saheehah, no. 2608, …). They woke him up and said, ‘Go to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and tell him that Abu Bakr and ‘Umar send their salaams to you and are asking for food.’ He (the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)) said:

‘Send my salaams to them and tell them that they have already eaten.’ They got worried, so they came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, we sent word to you asking for food, and you told us that we had already eaten? What have we eaten?’ He said, ‘The flesh of your brother. By the One in Whose hand is my soul, I can see his flesh between your teeth” – meaning the flesh of the one about whom they had backbitten.’ They said, ‘Ask for forgiveness for us.’ He said, ‘Let him ask for forgiveness for you.’” (Al-Silsilat al-Saheehah, no. 2608. It was attributed to al-Kharaa’iti in Masaawa’ al-Akhlaaq and to al-Diya’ in al-Mukhtaarah. Ibn Katheer mentioned it in his tafseer of Soorat al-Hujuraat, 7/363, Dar al-Sha’b edn.)
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   الأحد أكتوبر 11, 2009 5:52 pm

تذكير المخطئ بفضل من اخطأ عليه ليندم ويعتذر
وقد فعل ذلك النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فيما حصل بين أبي بكر وعمر رضي الله عنهما فقد روى البخاري رحمه الله تعالى في كتاب التفسير من صحيحه عن أَبي الدَّرْدَاءِ رضي الله عنه قال: كَانَتْ بَيْنَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرَ مُحَاوَرَةٌ فَأَغْضَبَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ عُمَرَ فَانْصَرَفَ عَنْهُ عُمَرُ مُغْضَبًا فَاتَّبَعَهُ أَبُو بَكْرٍ يَسْأَلُهُ أَنْ يَسْتَغْفِرَ لَهُ فَلَمْ يَفْعَلْ حَتَّى أَغْلَقَ بَابَهُ فِي وَجْهِهِ فَأَقْبَلَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ أَبُو الدَّرْدَاءِ وَنَحْنُ عِنْدَهُ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَمَّا صَاحِبُكُمْ هَذَا فَقَدْ غَامَرَ (أي: دخل في خصومة) قَالَ وَنَدِمَ عُمَرُ عَلَى مَا كَانَ مِنْهُ فَأَقْبَلَ حَتَّى سَلَّمَ وَجَلَسَ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَقَصَّ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الْخَبَرَ قَالَ أَبُو الدَّرْدَاءِ وَغَضِبَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَجَعَلَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ يَقُولُ وَاللَّهِ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ لأَنَا كُنْتُ أَظْلَمَ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ هَلْ أَنْتُمْ تَارِكُونَ لِي صَاحِبِي هَلْ أَنْتُمْ تَارِكُونَ لِي صَاحِبِي إِنِّي قُلْتُ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا فَقُلْتُمْ كَذَبْتَ وَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ صَدَقْتَ فتح 4640

وروى البخاري القصة أيضا في كتاب المناقب من صحيحه عَنْ أَبِي الدَّرْدَاءِ رَضِي اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ كُنْتُ جَالِسًا عِنْدَ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِذْ أَقْبَلَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ آخِذًا بِطَرَفِ ثَوْبِهِ حَتَّى أَبْدَى عَنْ رُكْبَتِهِ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَمَّا صَاحِبُكُمْ فَقَدْ غَامَرَ فَسَلَّمَ وَقَالَ إِنِّي كَانَ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَ ابْنِ الْخَطَّابِ شَيْءٌ فَأَسْرَعْتُ إِلَيْهِ ثُمَّ نَدِمْتُ فَسَأَلْتُهُ أَنْ يَغْفِرَ لِي فَأَبَى عَلَيَّ فَأَقْبَلْتُ إِلَيْكَ فَقَالَ يَغْفِرُ اللَّهُ لَكَ يَا أَبَا بَكْرٍ ثَلاثًا ثُمَّ إِنَّ عُمَرَ نَدِمَ فَأَتَى مَنْزِلَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ فَسَأَلَ أَثَّمَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ فَقَالُوا لا فَأَتَى إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَسَلَّمَ فَجَعَلَ وَجْهُ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَتَمَعَّرُ حَتَّى أَشْفَقَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ فَجَثَا عَلَى رُكْبَتَيْهِ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَاللَّهِ أَنَا كُنْتُ أَظْلَمَ مَرَّتَيْنِ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بَعَثَنِي إِلَيْكُمْ فَقُلْتُمْ كَذَبْتَ وَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ صَدَقَ وَوَاسَانِي بِنَفْسِهِ وَمَالِهِ فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ تَارِكُو (هكذا لفظه في فضائل الصحابة وفي كتاب التفسير تاركون) لِي صَاحِبِي مَرَّتَيْنِ فَمَا أُوذِيَ بَعْدَهَا فتح رقم 3661

Reminding the Person of the Good Qualities of the one whom he has Wronged,

This is what the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did in the situation that arose between Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, may Allaah be pleased with them. Al-Bukhaari (may Allaah have mercy on him) reported in his Saheeh, Kitaab al-Tafseer, that Abu’l-Darda’ said: “There was a dispute between Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. Abu Bakr made ‘Umar angry, so he went away angry, and Abu Bakr followed him, asking him to seek forgiveness for him, but he did not do that, and he shut his door in his face. Abu Bakr turned around and went to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and we were sitting with him. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

‘This companion of yours has gotten involved in a dispute.’ Then ‘Umar regretted what he had done, so he came, gave the greeting of salaam, and sat down by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). He told the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) what had happened. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) got angry, and Abu Bakr started to say, ‘By Allaah, O Messenger of Allaah, I am more wrong.’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘Are you going to leave my companion alone? Are you going to leave my companion alone? I have told the people: I am the Messenger of Allaah to all of you, and you (all) said, “You are a liar,” but Abu Bakr said, “You are telling the truth.” ’ ” (Fath 4640).

Al-Bukhaari also narrated this story in Kitaab al-Manaaqib (the Book of Virtues) in his Saheeh, from Abu’l-Darda’, who said: “I was sitting with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) when Abu Bakr came along, holding the hem of his garment up in such a way that his knees could be seen. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

‘Your companion has gotten involved in a dispute.’ [Abu Bakr] gave the greeting of salaam, then said: ‘There is something between me and the son of al-Khattaab. I upset him, then I regretted it, and I asked him to forgive me, but he refused, so I have come to you.’ He said, ‘May Allaah forgive you, O Abu Bakr,’ three times. Then ‘Umar regretted (what he had done), so he came to Abu Bakr’s house, asking, ‘Is Abu Bakr there?’ They said, ‘No.’ So he came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and signs of anger were so visible on the Prophet’s face that Abu Bakr felt sorry. He knelt down and said. ‘O Messenger of Allaah, by Allaah, I was more wrong,’ twice. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘Allaah sent me to all of you, and you (all) said, “He is a liar,” but Abu Bakr said, “He is telling the truth”, and helped me with his self and with his wealth. Are you going to leave my Companion alone?’ He said this twice, and Abu Bakr was never hurt after that.” (Fath, no. 3661).
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   الأحد أكتوبر 11, 2009 5:55 pm

التدخل لتسكين الثائرة ونزع فتيل الفتنه بين المخطئين
وقد فعل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ذلك في عدد من المواضع ولما أوشك أن يقع بين المسلمين اقتتال تدخّل عليه الصلاة والسلام كما جاء في حادثة الإفك عن عائشة رضي الله عنها قَالَتْ في تلك القصة: فَقَامَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مِنْ يَوْمِهِ فَاسْتَعْذَرَ مِنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أُبَيٍّ وَهُوَ عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ فَقَالَ يَا مَعْشَرَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ مَنْ يَعْذِرُنِي مِنْ رَجُلٍ قَدْ بَلَغَنِي عَنْهُ أَذَاهُ فِي أَهْلِي وَاللَّهِ مَا عَلِمْتُ عَلَى أَهْلِي إِلا خَيْرًا وَلَقَدْ ذَكَرُوا رَجُلا مَا عَلِمْتُ عَلَيْهِ إِلا خَيْرًا وَمَا يَدْخُلُ عَلَى أَهْلِي إِلا مَعِي قَالَتْ فَقَامَ سَعْدُ بْنُ مُعَاذٍ أَخُو بَنِي عَبْدِ الأَشْهَلِ فَقَالَ أَنَا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَعْذِرُكَ فَإِنْ كَانَ مِنَ الأَوْسِ ضَرَبْتُ عُنُقَهُ وَإِنْ كَانَ مِنْ إِخْوَانِنَا مِنَ الْخَزْرَجِ أَمَرْتَنَا فَفَعَلْنَا أَمْرَكَ قَالَتْ فَقَامَ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الْخَزْرَجِ وَكَانَتْ أُمُّ حَسَّانَ بِنْتَ عَمِّهِ مِنْ فَخِذِهِ وَهُوَ سَعْدُ بْنُ عُبَادَةَ وَهُوَ سَيِّدُ الْخَزْرَجِ قَالَتْ وَكَانَ قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ رَجُلا صَالِحًا وَلَكِنِ احْتَمَلَتْهُ الْحَمِيَّةُ فَقَالَ لِسَعْدٍ كَذَبْتَ لَعَمْرُ اللَّهِ لا تَقْتُلُهُ وَلا تَقْدِرُ عَلَى قَتْلِهِ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ رَهْطِكَ مَا أَحْبَبْتَ أَنْ يُقْتَلَ فَقَامَ أُسَيْدُ بْنُ حُضَيْرٍ وَهُوَ ابْنُ عَمِّ سَعْدٍ فَقَالَ لِسَعْدِ بْنِ عُبَادَةَ كَذَبْتَ لَعَمْرُ اللَّهِ لَنَقْتُلَنَّهُ فَإِنَّكَ مُنَافِقٌ تُجَادِلُ عَنِ الْمُنَافِقِينَ قَالَتْ فَثَارَ الْحَيَّانِ الأَوْسُ وَالْخَزْرَجُ حَتَّى هَمُّوا أَنْ يَقْتَتِلُوا وَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَائِمٌ عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ قَالَتْ فَلَمْ يَزَلْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يُخَفِّضُهُمْ حَتَّى سَكَتُوا متفق عليه الفتح 4141

وقد ذهب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى بني عمرو بن عوف ليُصلح بينهم وتأخّر من أجل ذلك عن بداية صلاة الجماعة كما في الصحيحين وفي رواية النسائي: عن سَهْلِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ السَّاعِدِيِّ رضي الله عنه قال: وَقَعَ بَيْنَ حَيَّيْنِ مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ كَلامٌ حَتَّى تَرَامَوْا بِالْحِجَارَةِ فَذَهَبَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لِيُصْلِحَ بَيْنَهُمْ فَحَضَرَتِ الصَّلاةُ فَأَذَّنَ بِلالٌ وَانْتُظِرَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَاحْتُبِسَ فَأَقَامَ الصَّلاةَ وَتَقَدَّمَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ رَضِي اللَّهُ عَنْهُ.. الحديث المجتبى كتاب آداب القضاة 8/243 وفي رواية لأحمد عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ رضي الله عنه قَالَ: أَتَى رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ آتٍ فَقَالَ إِنَّ بَنِي عَمْرِو بْنِ عَوْفٍ قَدِ اقْتَتَلُوا وَتَرَامَوْا بِالْحِجَارَةِ فَخَرَجَ إِلَيْهِمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لِيُصْلِحَ بَيْنَهُمْ.. المسند 5/338


Intervening to Calm People down and Put an End to the fitnah (Discord) Between those Who are Making mistakes

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did this on a number of occasions when fighting was about to break out among the Muslims, so he intervened, as was reported in the incident of the slander (al-ifk) against ‘Aa`ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her). She said:

“The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stood up that day and asked for someone to deal with ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Ubayy for him, whilst he was on the minbar. He said, ‘O Muslims! Who will deal with a man who I have heard is attacking me with regard to my family? By Allaah, I know nothing about my family but good, and they have mentioned a man about whom I know nothing but good, and he has never entered upon my family except with me.’ Sa’d ibn Mu’aadh, the brother of Bani ‘Abd al-Ashhal, stood up and said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, I will deal with him for you. If he is from Aws, I will strike his neck [cut his head off], and if he is from among our brothers of Khazraj, tell us what to do, and we will do it.’ Then a man of Khazraj stood up; Umm Hassaan was his cousin from the same clan, and he was Sa’d ibn ‘Ubaadah the leader of Khazraj. Before that he was known to be a righteous man, but on this occasion a spirit of tribalism took hold of him, and he said to Sa’d [ibn Mu’aadh], ‘You are lying! By Allaah, you will not kill him and you will not be able to kill him. If he were one of your people, you would not like him to be killed!’ Usayd ibn Hudayr, the cousin of Sa’d, stood up and said to Sa’d ibn ‘Ubaadah: ‘You are lying! By Allaah, we will kill him! You are a hypocrite defending the hypocrites!’ The two parties of Aws and Khazraj got so angry that they nearly began to fight whilst the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was standing on the minbar. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) kept smoothing things over until they calmed down.” (Agreed upon. Fath, 4141)

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) went to Bani ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf to reconcile between them, and stayed there for that purpose until the time for one of the congregational prayers came, as is reported in al-Saheehayn and in a report narrated by al-Nisaa`i. Sahl ibn Sa’d al-Saa’idi (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “A dispute arose between two parties among the Ansaar, to the point that they were throwing stones at one another. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) went to reconcile between them, and the time for prayer came, so Bilaal called the Adhaan and waited for the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), but he did not come. So he made the iqaamah (call immediately preceding congregational prayer) and Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him) led the prayer…” (Al-Mujtabaa, Kitaab Aadaab al-Qadaah, 8/243). According to a report narrated by Ahmad, Sahl ibn Sa’d al-Saa’idi said: “Someone came to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said: ‘Bani ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf are fighting and throwing stones at one another.’ So the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) went out to them to reconcile between them…” (Al-Musnad, 5/338)
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ذكر عدد المساهمات : 132
تاريخ التسجيل : 17/09/2009
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   الأحد أكتوبر 11, 2009 6:06 pm

بسم الله ماشاء الله
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الاساليب النبوية في التعامل مع الأخطاء   الأربعاء أكتوبر 14, 2009 12:26 pm

جزاكم الله خيرا يا بنات

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